Xem 1-20 trên 62 kết quả Drug abuse
  • This chapter identify and describe several opium‑derived drugs; list and describe synthetic narcotics; identify and distinguish among stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens; outline techniques used in investigating dangerous drugs and narcotics; assess the motives, methods, and management of drug informants;...

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Common Genotypes of Hepatitis B virus prevalent in Injecting drug abusers (addicts) of North West Frontier Province of Pakistan

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Study protocol for a group randomized controlled trial of a classroom-based intervention aimed at preventing early risk factors for drug abuse: integrating effectiveness and implementation research

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Substance abuse and psychiatric co-morbidity as predictors of premature mortality in Swedish drug abusers a prospective longitudinal study 1970 - 2006

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Study protocol for a group randomized controlled trial of a classroom-based intervention aimed at preventing early risk factors for drug abuse: integrating

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Substance abuse and pharmacy practice: what the community pharmacist needs to know about drug abuse and dependence

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  • Tham khảo tài liệu 'báo cáo hóa học: " common genotypes of hepatitis b virus prevalent in injecting drug abusers (addicts) of north west frontier province of pakistan"', luận văn - báo cáo phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về hóa học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học quốc tế đề tài : Neglected simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures secondary to narcotic drug abuse treated by bilateral one-staged hemiarthroplasty: a case report

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  • Introduction: Toluene, benzene, xylene and styrene are being widely used for chemical product materials, solvents and constituents of adhesives and paints, and thus sometimes cause poisoning incidents by inhaling their gas at chemical product-manufacturing factories. The abuse of thinner solvents, containing toluene, benzene and xylene, is now a social problem especially for young people. There are many crimes and poisoning incidents involving the thinner solvent abuse.

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  • Introduction: Phencyclidine (PCP) ( Fig. 8.1), a synthetic arylcyclohexylamine hallucinogen, had been first applied as an anaesthetic to animals and then to humans for a short period. PCP is known by street names of “angel dust” and “crystal”. Illicit use of PCP first appeared during mid-1960s along the West Coast, and then peaked in the United States in 1979; illicit PCP use declined by 1992. However, daily use of PCP has remained stable among young school seniors over the past decade; PCP is thus being an important drug of abuse [1–3].

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  • Introduction: Amphetamines are a group of drugs stimulating the central nervous system; they act on the cerebral cortex to enhance psychic activities, resulting in the removal of general fatigue and drowsiness and thus in the transient improvement of working efficiency. Their abuse causes dependence, hallucination, delusion and changes in personality. Because of such harmfulness of the drugs, their use and possession are prohibited by the Stimulant Drugs Control Law in Japan [1].

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  • Introduction: Pentazocine ( Fig. 5.1) is a non-narcotic analgesic, but shows mild dependence; there are many cases of pentazocine abuse especially for medical and co-medical workers. The drug is being regulated as a subclass compound of narcotics (DEA class: IV). Pentazocine in both antemortem and postmortem specimens is being analyzed by GC [1–4], HPLC [5–7] and GC/MS [8]. In this chapter, a simple method for GC/MS analysis of pentazocine in human whole blood and urine is presented. ⊡ Figure 5.1 Structures of pentazocine and dextromethorphan (IS).

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  • Introduction: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD, lysergide) is known as one of the most powerful hallucinogenic drugs of abuse. LSD was explosively abused in U.S.A. in the latter half of the 1960s. In Japan, the amount of seizure of LSD is much smaller than that of methamphetamine. However, in recent years, it has been increasing markedly; 3,500 tablets of LSD were seized in 1996, while 53,043 tablets in 2000 (about 15-fold increase), arousing a serious concern about the phenomenon. LSD is a compound chemically modified from ergot alkaloid produced by a bacterium Claviceps purpurea.

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  • Introduction: Benzodiazepines show antianxiety, hypnotic, anticonvulsant and muscle-relaxant effects. This group of drugs has wide safety dose ranges; it means that the ratio of the LD50 to the ED50 (therapeutic index) is high. Because of its safety, benzodiazepines are being widely used in the world. Some of benzodiazepines are also being abused or used for so-called “drug facilitated sexual assault”, and thus they are under the control of the Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Law; in Japan, triazolam abuse has become one of the serious social problems.

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  • Introduction: Local anaesthetics reversibly block neural transmission in local tissues. The drugs are bound with specific receptors located inside the sodium channels of cell membranes, and thus block the permeability of sodium ions; this is the mechanism of anaesthetic action of these drugs. As the history of local anaesthetics, Von Anrep discovered the local anaesthetic action of an alkaloid cocaine being contained in the leaves of Erythroxylon coca. Then, Karl Koller used cocaine as a local anaesthetic in ophthalmological surgery.

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  • Introduction: 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamines (MDAs), which were described as a new drug class “entactogens” a by Nichols [1], are being abused to enhance mutual understanding, communicativeness and empathy together with their hallucinogenic effects [1–3]. They are known as a group of designer drugs, and include 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine(MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine(MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) and N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine(MBDB) ( Fig. 7.1). Of the MDAs, MDA, MDMA and MDEA are strictly controlled by laws b.

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  • Introduction: Cocaine is an alkaloid being contained in the leaves of Erythroxylon coca Lam. or Erythroxylon novogranatense (Morris) Hieronymus of Erythroxylaceae plants. The compound is being used as a local anaesthetic. It also shows stimulating action on the central nervous system; when it is used continuously, psychic dependence on its use appears, resulting in its chronic toxicosis [1]. Cocaine is being abused worldwide; its abuse is most serious in the north and south American continents. Fortunately, in Japan, its abuse is not so many; but it cannot be overlooked.

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  • The abuse of amphetamines is of national concern from a public health perspective. Review of this subject is timely and important, because the problem of amphetamine-like drugs has recently been amplified by the introduction of designer drugs in the illicit market. There has been an increasing number of attempts by chemists in clandestine laboratories to synthesize structurally altered congeners that might intensify the moodaltering property of this class of compounds.

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  • There are a wide range of problems that are considered psychological disorders, including mental and emotional disorders, problems related to alcohol and drug abuse, and some diseases that cause both emotional and physical symptoms. Psychological disorders often begin in early childhood, but during adolescence we see a sharp increase in the number of people affected by these disorders. It has been estimated that about 20 percent of the U.S. population will have some form of mental disorder sometime during their lifetime. Some psychological disorders appear following severe stress or trauma.

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  • Drug abuse in the developed world is an international problem. In the USA, in an effort to deter drug use and identify abusers so they may receive treatment, testing an individual’s urine has become a large commercial enterprise. Drug testing has also been a traditional part of clinical care in medicine and in the medicolegal investigation of death. While scientists conducting drug testing in the postmortem arena routinely analyze a variety of biological matrices, the specimen of choice in the drug testing industry in the USA is urine and in clinical medicine, serum.

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