Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: "Assessing drug distribution in tissues expressing P-glycoprotein through physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling: model structure and parameters determination
Datura metel a (jimsonweed) is a plant belonging to the Solanacea family; and contains tropane alkaloids (belladonna alkaloids), such as atropineb (dl-hyoscyamine) and hyoscine (dl-scopolamine), in its seeds and every part of the plant. Its seeds and leaves have long been being used as a folk medicine in Japan. Seishu Hanaoka, a Japanese surgeon, first used this plant for general anaesthesia in 1804.
Distribution in the Body
proceeds rapidly, because the absorbing surface is greatly enlarged due to the formation of the epithelial brush border (submicroscopic foldings of the plasmalemma). The absorbability of a drug is characterized by the absorption quotient, that is, the amount absorbed divided by the amount in the gut available for absorption. In the respiratory tract, cilia-bearing epithelial cells are also joined on the luminal side by zonulae occludentes, so that the bronchial space and the interstitium are separated by a continuous phospholipid barrier.
Five years have passed since the first edition of
Principles of Clinical Pharmacology was published. The
second edition remains focused on the principles
underlying the clinical use and contemporary development
of pharmaceuticals. However, recent advances in
the areas of pharmacogenetics, membrane transport,
and biotechnology and in our understanding of the
pathways of drug metabolism, mechanisms of enzyme
induction, and adverse drug reactions have warranted
the preparation of this new edition.
Many of antidepressants exert their effects by inhibiting the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin and by accerelating the release of them at synaptic terminals of neurons in the brain. As characteristic structures of such drugs showing antidepressive effects, many of them have tricyclic or tetracyclic nuclei; this is the reason why they are called “tricyclic antidepressants or tetracyclic antidepressants”. There are many cases of suicides using the antidepressants; their massive intake sometimes causes death.
In a certain sense, the field of drug metabolism (DM) is standing still. More
specifically, the basic experiment of drug metabolism (i.e., administering a new
drug to an animal or human and determining the structures, amounts, and
disposition of the metabolites) has changed very little over a period of decades.
Remarkably, the experimental design and resulting data set from a typical
absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) study conducted
today would be instantly recognized and understood by DM scientists from 50
The synthesis and characterization of chitosan (CS) nanoparticles used as drug carrier was reported. The formation of nanoparticles, taking place in an aqueous phase without using auxiliary toxic substances via the ionic interaction between NH3 + protonated group of CS and phosphate group of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) was monitored in situ by combined UV-vis and pH measurements. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by TGA/DTA, XRD and TEM. The particle size, estimated by TEM, was found around 50 - 70 nm, with a quite uniform size distribution.
Great efﬁciencies have been achieved in the drug discovery process as a result of technological advances in target identiﬁcation, high-throughput screening, high-throughput organic synthesis, just-in-time in vitro ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion), and early pharmacokinetic screening of drug leads. These advances, spanning target selection all the way through to clinical candidate selection, have placed greater and greater demands on the analytical community to develop robust high-throughput methods.
The Internet of Things (IoT), sometimes referred to as the Internet of Objects, will change
everything—including ourselves. This may seem like a bold statement, but consider the
impact the Internet already has had on education, communication, business, science,
government, and humanity. Clearly, the Internet is one of the most important and powerful
creations in all of human history.
This paper presents SIENA, an event notiﬁcation service that we have de-
signed and implemented to maximize both expressiveness and scalability. In
Section 3we describe the service’s formally deﬁned application programming in-
terface,which is an extension of the familiar publish/subscribe protocol [Birman
1993]. Several candidate server topologies and protocols are presented in Sec-
Clinical Implications of Drug Distribution Digoxin accesses its cardiac site of action slowly, over a distribution phase of several hours. Thus, after an intravenous dose, plasma levels fall, but those at the site of action increase over hours. Only when distribution is near-complete does the concentration of digoxin in plasma reflect pharmacologic effect. For this reason, there should be a 6–8 h wait after administration before plasma levels of digoxin are measured as a guide to therapy.
My motivation for the transition was the opportunity to develop and launch innovative, efficient energy technologies that have minimal impact on the environment yet still provide the reliability our society demands.
I’m a true believer that global climate change is an immediate concern, so I manage my career accordingly. I am thrilled to be at UTC Power, a world leader in providing environmentally responsible power solutions.
Hollywood’s loss, in terms of the general narrowing of the horizons
of possibility at the heart of the studio-led machine, was to be the
gain of a newly consolidating form of independent production and
distribution that was beginning to take shape during the 1980s, and
into which some of the inheritance of the Renaissance was carried.
The term ‘independent’ has had rather different connotations at
different periods in the history of American cinema. In the 1930s,
for example, it signiﬁed ‘something less than trash’.
About three-quarters of people with schizophrenia suffer recurrent relapses and continued
disability. Outcome appears to be worse in people with the following factors: 1) an insidious
onset of symptoms where initial treatment is delayed; 2) social isolation; 3) a strong family
history of schizophrenia or other major mental disorder; 4) people living in industrialised
countries and urbanised communities; 5) men appear to fair worse than women; and 6) in
those people who misuse drugs especially cannabis, and possibly from an early age under 16
years (Jablensky et al 1992).
In most cohort studies it is necessary to calculate the actual time-at-risk for each individual
as person-time. The person-time is used to either calculate mortality or incidence rates of the
cohort or to perform indirect standardization or multivariate analysis.
Person-time was calculated in person-years (PY) by a SAS® macro. The macro uses the
three time variables of age, length of stay in Germany and calendar-year. The macro
calculates and distributes the person-years exactly to the day. Age and length of stay are
categorized in one year intervals.
We start by considering the role of sovereign debt problems. Are the baseline results picking
up greater-than-expected effects of sovereign debt problems rather than the effects of fiscal
consolidation? As Table 2 reports, the results are robust to controlling for the initial (end-
2009) government-debt-to-GDP ratio, for the initial fiscal-balance-to-GDP ratio, and for the
initial structural fiscal-balance-to-GDP ratio.
New Zealand has a highly integrated, closed system of poultry production, with all
poultry meat available for retail sale being of domestic origin. Processors of chicken meat
control most aspects of production, processing, and distribution; 3 processing companies supply
90% of chicken meat consumed in New Zealand, representing 95% of all poultry meat
consumed (2). As a result, interventions applied to the local poultry industry affect all
domestically consumed poultry.
A marked decline in campylobacteriosis notifications was observed during 2007 and
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Distribution patterns of small-molecule ligands in the protein universe and implications for origin of life and drug discovery...