Xem 1-20 trên 27 kết quả Drug elimination
  • Compared with hydrophilic drugs not undergoing transport, lipophilic drugs are more rapidly taken up from the blood into hepatocytes and more readily gain access to mixed-function oxidases embedded in sER membranes. For instance, a drug having lipophilicity by virtue of an aromatic substituent (phenyl ring) (B) can be hydroxylated and, thus, become more hydrophilic (Phase I reaction, p. 34). Besides oxidases, sER also contains reductases and glucuronyl transferases. The latter conjugate glucuronic acid with hydroxyl, carboxyl, amine, and amide groups (p.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Color atlas of pharmacology" presentation of content: History of pharmacology, drug sources, pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetics, adverse drug effects, genetic variation of drug effects, drug elimination, adverse drug effects.

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  • General Anesthetic Drugs sic, an injectable anesthetic, a short-acting muscle relaxant, and a low dose of a neuroleptic. In regional anesthesia (spinal anesthesia) with a local anesthetic (p. 204), nociception is eliminated, while consciousness is preserved. This procedure, therefore, does not fall under the definition of general anesthesia. According to their mode of application, general anesthetics in the restricted sense are divided into inhalational (gaseous, volatile) and injectable agents.

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  • In one sense, pharmacology can be considered a “good news, bad news” scenario. The good news is that exciting and innovative changes in drug therapy continue to occur at lightning speed. The bad news is that it is often difficult for health care practitioners to stay abreast of this rapidly changing field. Oftentimes, drug therapies that were considered state-of-the-art only a few years ago are now outdated and replaced by more contemporary treatments.

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  • What is ‘biochemical pharmacology’? • A fancy way of saying ‘pharmacology’, and of hiding the fact that we are sneaking a subject of medical interest into the UW biochemistry curriculum. • An indication that we are not going to discuss prescriptions for your grandmother’s aching knee; we will focus on the scientific side of things but not on whether to take the small blue pill before or after the meal. What is it not? • A claim that we accurately understand the mechanism of action of each practically useful drug in biochemical terms.

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  • The following mechanisms are involved. Glomerular filtration. The rate at which a drug enters the glomerular filtrate depends on the concentration of free drug in plasma water and on its molecular weight. Substances that have a molecular weight in excess of 50 000 are excluded from the glomerular filtrate while those of molecular weight less than 10 000 (which includes almost all drugs)21 pass easily through the pores of the glomerular membrane. Renal tubular excretion. Cells of the proximal renal tubule actively transfer strongly charged molecules from the plasma to the tubular fluid.

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  • Database Management  Verifiable Data – confirming the accuracy of the stored data by randomly calling a customer and verifying name, address, phone, email, and other attributes in the record.  Data Cleansing – the act of detecting and correcting (or removing) corrupt or inaccurate records from a record set, table, or database. Used mainly in databases, the term refers to identifying incomplete, incorrect, inaccurate, irrelevant etc. parts of the data and then replacing, modifying or deleting this dirty data.

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  • In many countries, medicine is at present facing urgent political and economic calls for reform. These socioeconomic pressures notwithstanding, pharmacotherapy has always been an integral part of the health care system and will remain so in the future. Well-founded knowledge of the preventive and therapeutic value of drugs is a sine qua non for the successful treatment of patients entrusting themselves to a physician or pharmacist. Because of the plethora of proprietary medicines and the continuous influx of new pharmaceuticals, the drug market is dif cult to survey and hard to understand.

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  • Velocity encoded phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (VE-PC MRI) is another imaging technique used to noninvasively measure Achilles tendon strain and changes in its force-displacement relationship concomitant with chronic unloading and subsequent recuperation. This technique will be reviewed in terms of its ability to quantify the Achilles tendon Young’s modulus (MPa) from a stress-strain curve.

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  • Theoretically, use of autologous HS could eliminate the risks of disease transmissions and immune reactions. However, it is not always possible to obtain a sufficient amount of autologous HS for ex vivo expansion of BMSCs. In fact, over 400 mL of peripheral blood is usually required to obtain 200 mL of autologous HS, which is only sufficient to support the growth of BMSCs for a few passages. Therefore, collection of a sufficient amount of autologous HS is a considerable burden for anaemic patients as well as for healthy female patients with a low body weight.

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  • Pharmacokinetic Interactions Causing Decreased Drug Effects Gastrointestinal absorption can be reduced if a drug interaction results in drug binding in the gut, as with aluminum-containing antacids, kaolin-pectin suspensions, or bile acid sequestrants. Drugs such as histamine H 2 receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors that alter gastric pH may decrease the solubility and hence absorption of weak bases such as ketoconazole.

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  • Pharmacokinetics describes, in a quantitative manner, the passage of drugs through the body. A series of distinctive parameters such as bioavailability, volume of distribution and clearance are used to describe: --The rate and extent of drug absorption into the blood stream The rate and extent of drug movement out of blood into the tissues The rate of drug removal from the body These parameters can then be used to predict the blood concentration of drug that will arise with any given dosage regime. A diverse range of students will have some exposure to PKs....

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  • Biological sciences in nursing has seen a change in status over the last 20 years. As a nurse educator, I became aware that with the introduction of the ‘nursing model’ all signs of biology were banished from the curriculum. Anatomy and physiology were thought to be akin to the ‘medical model’, and as such they fell outside the nurse’s territory. At all costs, nurses had to be seen as autonomous practitioners in their own right.

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  • Widely recognised as the best starting point for pharmacology study, the internationally best-selling Medical Pharmacology at a Glance is an ideal companion for all students of the health sciences. Key principles are supported by coloured schematic diagrams - invaluable as both an introduction to medical pharmacology, and revision in the run-up to pharmacology exams.

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  • The human body has various defence mechanisms to eliminate these undesirable foreign objects. Two processes are involved: chemical dissolution for soluble particles and physical translocation, i.e., transport from one place to another, for insoluble or low-solubility particles. Soluble ultrafine dusts will act at the solubilization site and will not be discussed here, since the effects are highly variable depending on the dust composition and identical to those of larger dusts which are also solubilized.

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  • While the effects of relaxing exclusivity warrant further research, in general it would not eliminate our main points regarding nonsophisticated borrowers. Even if borrowers had access to a competitive market in period 1, our results remain unchanged so long as the original firm can include in the contract a fee—such as the prepayment penalties in subprime mortgages—for refinancing with any firm in the market. If firms cannot postulate such a fee for refinancing on the competitive market, then in our three-period setting a borrower will always avoid repaying more than expected.

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  • Some of the poorest countries have significantly reduced maternal and newborn mortality and improved women’s and children’s health. Innovative approaches can achieve even more, eliminating barriers to health and producing better outcomes. These approaches need to be applied to all activities: leadership, financing (including incentives to achieve better performance and results), tools and interventions, service delivery, monitoring and evaluation.

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  • How drugs act and interact, how they enter the body, what happens to them inside the body, how they are eliminated from it; the effects of genetics, age, and disease on drug action — these topics are important for, although they will generally not be in the front of the conscious mind of the prescriber, an understanding of them will enhance rational decision taking. Knowledge of the requirements for success and the explanations for failure and for adverse events will enable the doctor to maximise the benefits and minimise the risks of drug therapy. Pharmacodynamics.

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  • Pharmacokinetics (t1/2) and the apparent volume of distribution Vapp (p. 28) by the equation: Vapp t1/2 = In 2 x –––– Cltot The smaller the volume of distribution or the larger the total clearance, the shorter is the half-life. In the case of drugs renally eliminated in unchanged form, the half-life of elimination can be calculated from the cumulative excretion in urine; the final total amount eliminated corresponds to the amount absorbed.

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  • The kidneys comprise only 0.5% of body weight, yet they receive 25% of the cardiac output. Drugs that affect renal function have important roles in cardiac failure and hypertension. Disease of the kidney must be taken into account when prescribing drugs that are eliminated by it. Diuretic drugs: their sites and modes of action, classification, adverse effects and uses in cardiac, hepatic, renal and other conditions. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Cation-exchange resins and their uses. Alteration of urine pH Drugs and the kidney. Adverse effects.

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