Xem 1-20 trên 46 kết quả Drug receptors
  • Drug-Receptor Interaction partial charges. When a hydrogen atom bearing a partial positive charge bridges two atoms bearing a partial negative charge, a hydrogen bond is created. A van der Waals’ bond (B) is formed between apolar molecular groups that have come into close proximity. Spontaneous transient distortion of electron clouds (momentary faint dipole, !!) may induce an opposite dipole in the neighboring molecule. The van der Waals’ bond, therefore, is a form of electrostatic attraction, albeit of very low strength (inversely proportional to the seventh power of the distance).

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  • Adverse Drug Effects premature breakdown of red blood cells (hemolysis) in subjects with a glucose6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. The discipline of pharmacogenetics deals with the importance of the genotype for reactions to drugs. The above forms of hypersensitivity must be distinguished from allergies involving the immune system (p. 72). Lack of selectivity (C). Despite appropriate dosing and normal sensitivity, undesired effects can occur because the drug does not specifically act on the targeted (diseased) tissue or organ.

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  • Introduction: Local anaesthetics reversibly block neural transmission in local tissues. The drugs are bound with specific receptors located inside the sodium channels of cell membranes, and thus block the permeability of sodium ions; this is the mechanism of anaesthetic action of these drugs. As the history of local anaesthetics, Von Anrep discovered the local anaesthetic action of an alkaloid cocaine being contained in the leaves of Erythroxylon coca. Then, Karl Koller used cocaine as a local anaesthetic in ophthalmological surgery.

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  • Drugs Acting on Motor Systems spinal disorders. Benzodiazepines enhance the effectiveness of the inhibitory transmitter GABA (p. 226) at GABAA receptors. Baclofen stimulates GABAB receptors. !2-Adrenoceptor agonists such as clonidine and tizanidine probably act presynaptically to inhibit release of excitatory amino acid transmitters. The convulsant toxins, tetanus toxin (cause of wound tetanus) and strychnine diminish the efficacy of interneuronal synaptic inhibition mediated by the amino acid glycine (A).

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  • Introduction: Phenothiazine drugs, including chlorpromazine and levomepromazine, have been being widely used as neuroleptics (major tranquilizers), antiparkinsonian drugs and antihistaminics for a long time [1]. Table 1.1 shows chemical structures of representative phenothiazines. These drugs show blocking action on D2 receptors of dopaminergic neurons; there is close relationship between the receptor blocking and tranquilizing actions. The dopamine D2 receptor-blocking actions provoke extrapyramidal symptoms, such as muscular stiffness, tremor and ptyalism.

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  • Introductio: β-Blockers (β-adrenergic receptor antagonists) block the effects of catecholamines on signal transmission through β-receptors; they cause hypotension by decreasing the heart beat rate and cardiac output, and prevent the attacks of arrhythmia and angina pectoris. In the brain, the drugs attenuate migraine by suppressing the dilation of blood vessels; in the eye, they decrease intraocular pressure by suppressing the production of aqueous humor.

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  • It has been nearly 20 years since the last Humana Press book devoted to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) receptors has appeared. Since then, the field of 5-HT receptors has undergone a revolution due to the discovery of many additional 5-HT receptors. Although 5-HT was chemically elucidated in 1948 by Page and colleagues (Rapport et al.

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  • Adrenergic receptors (ARs) are expressed in almost all organs and tissues and regulate a large number of diverse physiological processes upon activation by epinephrine and norepinephrine. There are three families of ARs, a1, a2, and b-ARs, with distinct pharmacological properties and functions. Since the first identification of bARs more than three decades ago, research on ARs has led to the establishment of many fundamental concepts in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) pharmacology.

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  • Research objectives: Describe the clinical and subclinical characteristics in patients with Graves’ disease. Evaluation of Graves' disease treatment in children by anti-thyroid drug methimazole group synthesis. Survey and evaluate change TRAb levels and some clinical parameters, subclinical concerning treatment outcome and recurrence in children with Graves’ disease.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Drug and device selection in heart failure" presents the following contents: Renewed understanding of the pathophysiology of heart failure, new diuretics in heart failure, emerging role of aldosterone receptor blockers in heart failure, traditional mechanical support,...

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  • Chronic consumption For benefits of chronic alcohol consumption, see page 187. Central nervous system. The development of dependence on alcohol appears to involve alterations in central nervous system neurotransmission. The acute effect of alcohol is to block NMDA receptors for which the normal agonist is glutamate, the main excitatory transmitter in the brain. Chronic exposure increases the number of NMDA receptors and also 'L type' calcium channels, while the action of the (inhibitory) GABA neurotransmitter is reduced.

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  • The reality is more complex since the receptor binding profile of clozapine and the newer atypical antipsychotic agents suggests that D2-receptor blockade is not essential for antipsychotic effect. The atypical drugs act on numerous receptors and modulate several interacting transmitter systems. Clozapine is a highly effective antipsychotic. It has little affinity for the D2-receptor compared with classical drugs but binds more avidly to other dopamine subtypes (e.g. D1, D3 and D4). It blocks muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, as do certain classical agents (e.g.

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  • The representation of drug treatment in America can affect society in several ways, including stigmatization. Elizabeth Hirschman (1992), in her study of cocaine use in films, argues that "motion pictures which focus upon addiction can serve as instructive, semiotically-rich texts for communicating cultural knowledge about addiction" (p. 428). This communication is not simply one-way, though; it exists as a continual feedback loop, with movies "both reflect[ing] and shape[ing] individual and societal values, attitudes, and behavior" (Wedding, 2000, p. 3).

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  • This chapter describes the physiological role and pathophysical consequences of histamine release and provides a summary of the therapeutic use of histamine H1-receptor antagonists. H2-receptor antagonists are discussed in detail in Chapter 37: Agents Used for Control of Gastric Acidity and Treatment of Peptic Ulcers and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in the context of prevention and treatment of peptic ulcers, their principal therapeutic application.

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  • In this review, will be summarize the principle of these new methodologies and the impact of omics-techniques, mainly genomic-transcriptomics (analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms or gene-expression) and proteomic (identification and quantification of proteins), in the knowledge of different aspects of allergy diseases (diagnosis, screening, monitoring of treatment, protective or risk biomarkers and drug development) and the advance to define the personalized and molecular medicine in this complex kind of diseases....

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  • Acetylcholine is a widespread chemotransmitter in the body, mediating a broad range of physiological effects.There are two distinct classes of receptor for acetylcholine defined on the basis of their preferential activation by the alkaloids, nicotine (from tobacco) and muscarine (from a fungus, Amanita muscaria). Cholinergic drugs (acetylcholine agonists) mimic acetylcholine at all sites although the balance of nicotinic and muscarinic effects is variable.

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  • Many mycobacterial species, including M. tuberculosis, grow extremely slowly in the laboratory and require 3–8 weeks of incubation on solid medium or at least 2 weeks in a radiometric liquid culture system (BACTEC). This slow growth often leads to delay in TB diagnosis. Nucleic acid amplification (NAA) methods allow for detection of mycobacterial DNA or RNA directly from the specimens before the culture results are available. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two NAA tests for direct detection of M. tuberculosis from clinical specimens.

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  • The neurons of the corpus striatum receive an excitatory input from the cerebral cortex and the thalamus. The major outputs project to the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticula (SNr), and use gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as a transmitter. Major efferent pathways from the globus pallidus interna and the SNr project to the thalamus. Feedback to the striatum is through the dopaminergic striatonigral pathway originating in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc; Figure 1). These separate pathways utilize different neuropeptides and dopamine receptors.

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  • According to the focus group study in South Africa mentioned earlier, much of the abuse – and particularly domestic violence – occurred as a result of social disorder, exacerbated by crime, alcohol and drugs. Similar conclusions came from an exercise conducted by seven male community leaders of the Tamaho squatter camp in Katlehong, South Africa (15).

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  • This book, with its 16 chapters, documents the present state of knowledge of the adenosine A3 receptor. It covers a wide range of information, including data from studies of theoretical, molecular and cellular pharmacology, signal transduction, integrative physiology, new drug discoveries and clinical applications. It fills an important gap in the literature since no alternative source of such information is currently available.

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