For over 50 years, interest has been expressed in optimizing drug therapy through
delivery system design. For many years this revolved around incorporating drugs
into erodible or inert polymers, which then acted as platforms for controlled release,
an approach that has been well reviewed in the literature.
Products of nanotechnology are expected to revolutionize
modern medicine, as evidenced by recent scientific advances
and global initiatives to support nanotechnology and nanomedicine
research. The field of drug delivery is a direct beneficiary
of these advancements. Due to their versatility in
targeting tissues, accessing deep molecular targets, and controlling
drug release, nanoparticles are helping address challenges
to face the delivery of modern, as well as conventional
Drugs for the Suppression of Pain (Analgesics)
ing, or burning character, i.e., pain that can be localized only poorly. Impulse traffic in the neo- and paleospinothalamic pathways is subject to modulation by descending projections that originate from the reticular formation and terminate at second-order neurons, at their synapses with first-order neurons, or at spinal segmental interneurons (descending antinociceptive system).
Drugs Acting on Motor Systems
spinal disorders. Benzodiazepines enhance the effectiveness of the inhibitory transmitter GABA (p. 226) at GABAA receptors. Baclofen stimulates GABAB receptors. !2-Adrenoceptor agonists such as clonidine and tizanidine probably act presynaptically to inhibit release of excitatory amino acid transmitters. The convulsant toxins, tetanus toxin (cause of wound tetanus) and strychnine diminish the efficacy of interneuronal synaptic inhibition mediated by the amino acid glycine (A).
Many of antidepressants exert their effects by inhibiting the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin and by accerelating the release of them at synaptic terminals of neurons in the brain. As characteristic structures of such drugs showing antidepressive effects, many of them have tricyclic or tetracyclic nuclei; this is the reason why they are called “tricyclic antidepressants or tetracyclic antidepressants”. There are many cases of suicides using the antidepressants; their massive intake sometimes causes death.
Discovery of a new chemical entity that exerts pharmacological effects for
curing or treating diseases or relieving symptoms is only the first step in
the drug developmental process. In the developmental cycle of a new
drug, the delivery of a desired amount of a therapeutic agent to the target
at a specific time or duration is as important as its discovery. In order
to realize the optimal therapeutic outcomes, a delivery system should
be designed to achieve the optimal drug concentration at a predetermined
rate and at the desired location....
In recent years, many researches have been developing towards biocompatible improvement and cellular penetrating ability of dendrimers in order to use in diagnosis and treatment therapy for several type of cancer. In this study, to enhance biocompatibility, drug loading efficiency and cellular uptake of the polyamidoamine dendrimer, the dendrimer generation 3.0 (G 3.0) was conjugated with hexanoyl chloride and targeted with acid folic (G3.0-C6-FA).
Porous metal organic framework nanoscale carriers as a potential platform for drug
delivery and imaging, In the domain of health, one important challenge is the efficient delivery of drugs in the body using non-toxic nanocarriers. Most of the existing carrier materials show poor drug loading and or rapid release of the proportion of the drug that is simply adsorbed at the external surface of the nanocarrier.
(BQ) Questions to Ask Your Pharmacist - list of questions for patients to ask their pharmacist or healthcare provider when obtaining a new prescription, entries provide information on drug interactions with other drugs, herbs, vitamins, supplements, food, and other substances.
This handbook emphasizes the use of synthetic membranes for separations
involving industrial or municipal process streams. Little will be said concerning
the use of membranes in medical applications as in artificial kidneys
or for controlled drug release.
Most of the membrane processes are pressure driven. The notable exception
to this is electrodialysis (ED) by which ions are separated under the influence
of an electric field. In addition, the chapter on coupled transport covers
processes which are driven under the influence of a concentration gradient....
Over 98 per cent of sprayed
insecticides and 95 per cent of herbicides reach a destination other than their target
species, including non-target species, air, water and soil. Pesticide drift occurs when
pesticides suspended in the air as particles are carried by wind to other areas,
potentially contaminating them. Pesticides are one of the causes of water pollution and
some pesticides are persistent organic pollutants and contribute to soil contamination.
Detection of pesticide molecules in the food items from plant and animal origin
become imperative for safe consumption of food.
Anyone who administers drugs acting on cardiovascular adrenergic mechanisms requires an understanding of how they act in order to use them to the best advantage and with safety. Adrenergic mechanisms Classification of sympathomimetics: by mode of action and selectivity for adrenoceptors Individual sympathomimetics Mucosal decongestants Shock Chronic orthostatic hypotension
Adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine are formed in the body and are used in therapeutics. The natural synthetic path is: tyrosine — dopa — dopamine — noradrenaline — adrenaline.
The theory of neurohumoral transmission received direct experimental validation nearly a century
ago (see von Euler , 1981 ), and extensive investigation during the ensuing years led to its general
acceptance. Nerves transmit information across most synapses and neuroeffector junctions by
means of specific chemical agents known as neurohumoral transmitters or, more simply,
This chapter describes the physiological role and pathophysical consequences of histamine release
and provides a summary of the therapeutic use of histamine H1-receptor antagonists. H2-receptor
antagonists are discussed in detail in Chapter 37: Agents Used for Control of Gastric Acidity and
Treatment of Peptic Ulcers and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in the context of prevention and
treatment of peptic ulcers, their principal therapeutic application.
Examples ranged from gory low-budget horror to the sexploitation
ﬁlms of Russ Meyer. Elements of independent ‘exploitation’ strategy
were also embraced by Hollywood in its more mainstream, blockbuster
productions, especially the strategy of combining wide opening release
patterns with saturation advertising, in order to recoup costs quickly.
A number of Hollywood’s biggest-grossing ﬁlms of the 1970s were, in
part, bigger-budget and glossier versions of independent exploitation
fare, especially The Exorcist (1973) and Jaws (1975)....
The view of investor as customer also receives
some weight from the fact that investors can redeem
their mutual fund shares at net asset value at any
time. This feature makes investing in a mutual fund
unlike owning stock in a traditional company or a
closed-end investment company, where the price at
which an investor can liquidate reflects the market’s
perception of the firm’s management. In that case,
when management is revealed to have taken a “bad”
action, current investors are damaged because they
can resell their shares only at a much lower price.
A United Nations report says almost three million people in developing countries are now receiving drugs for H.I.V.
This is an increase of almost one million people from two thousand six. Still, the hope
was to reach three million by two thousand five.
The World Health Organization, UNAIDS and UNICEF, the United Nations
Children’s Fund, released the new report Tuesday.
Figure 3 Cumulative release GCV from the scleral plugs of PLA-70,000 and PLA-5000 (whose content ratio was 80:20) containing 25% of GCV. The values shown are mean Æ SD. The duration of GCV release was prolonged further compared with the plug made of PLGA (75/25)-121,000. Abbreviations: GCV, ganciclovir; PLA, polylactic acid; PLGA, polyglycolic acid. Source: From Ref. 4.
weight: 5000) at weight ratios of 80/20. These plugs included 25% GCV.
Despite the advances in the development of new drugs, a drug may never reach the
target organ, or it may be difficult to achieve the necessary level of drug in the
body. Large doses can result in serious side effects, and can harm normal cells and
organs as well as diseased cells. Hence controlled release and the targeting of delivery
systems must evolve in parallel to drug research.
The governor’s office has expressed the view that, since Planned Parenthood affiliates
constitute just 2% of WHP providers, patients would have little difficulty finding alternative
providers. Our analysis indicates that in the markets they serve, Planned Parenthood affiliates
serve half, and sometimes much more than half, of all WHP patients.