Drug research

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  • This insightful text looks at key risk factors identified with drug use among Hispanic, African-American, and White non-Hispanic adolescents, expanding on current models of drug research to account for the unique experiences of these young people. The model underlying the research draws components from three theoretical models: self-derogation/self-esteem; acculturation stress; and perceptions of racial and cultural prejudice and discrimination.

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  • To meet the growing demand for safe vegetables, the assessment of understanding and awareness of risk producers of plant protection drugs increasingly are concerned, so that, with appropriate measures of hazards and reduce harmful levels of chemicals in the product. Therefore, this study was to assess the awareness of local people about the risks of plant protection drugs

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  • Introduction: Among many carbamate pesticides commercially available in Japan, those with relatively high toxicities are shown in Table 4.1 [1]. Carbamate pesticides are generally classified into N-methylcarbamate insecticides and N-allylcarbamate herbicides in view of their chemical structures and biological actions. The number of fatalities due to poisoning by carbamate pesticides is 50–100 every year in Japan; many of them are poisoned by methomyl [2].

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  • Introduction: Determination of methemoglobin (Met-Hb) in blood is important for the diagnosis of poisoning by oxidants, such as nitrite, nitrate, chlorate, chlorite, alkyl nitrites, nitroglycerin, aniline and other compounds. In 1938, Evelyn and Malloy [1] had devised a photoelectric method for determination of Met-Hb in blood. Minor modifications of this method were made by several researchers to increase sensitivity [2–4]. These methods are based on a phenomenon that the absorbance maximum of weakly acidic Met-Hb at 630 nm disappears by addition of cyanide.

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  • This Institute of Medicine/National Research Council report was written in response to a congressional request that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) contract with the National Academies for a comprehensive study of gaps in public health protection provided by the food safety system in the United States. In particular, the study was to review the role of the FDA in ensuring the safety of the nation’s food supply.

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  • Despite massive efforts in drug discovery fueled by combinatory chemistry, recombinant DNA technology, and highthroughput screening, surprisingly few molecules make it through the drug development process. While the reasons are debated, it is certain that many new chemical entities (NCEs) suffer from recurring problems that hinder development— low water solubility, instability, or inadequate pharmacokinetics. An estimated 43% of NCEs are poorly water-soluble.

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  • Introduction: As one of azide salts, lead azide is well known, because it is used as a detonator for air bags of automobiles. Recently, sodium azide has been frequently used for suicides and homicidal attempts. In this chapter, therefore, analytical methods are described only for sodium azide. Sodium azidea is being well used as an antiseptic (preservative)b in biochemical researches and as a material for synthesis of organic compounds.

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  • It has been a privilege to watch the growth of RNA interference technology over the last ten years. Starting with a mixture of curiosity and chagrin, the field has grown into a substantial enterprise which impacts (and utilizes resources from) virtually every field of biomedical research. Research in RNAi derives from a set of apparently unconnected observations: strange pigment patterns in plants, unexpected failures and successes in antisense and overexpression studies, small regulatory RNAs in bacteria.

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  • The abuse of amphetamines is of national concern from a public health perspective. Review of this subject is timely and important, because the problem of amphetamine-like drugs has recently been amplified by the introduction of designer drugs in the illicit market. There has been an increasing number of attempts by chemists in clandestine laboratories to synthesize structurally altered congeners that might intensify the moodaltering property of this class of compounds.

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  • Many drugs have unknown, controversial or multiple mechanisms of action. Four recent ‘chemical genomic’ studies, using genome-scale collections of yeast gene deletions that were either arrayed or barcoded, have presented complementary approaches to identifying gene-drug and pathwaydrug interactions. deposited research The fact that much of modern drug research is target-oriented obscures the long history during which the effects of drugs were discovered prior to identification of their targets. There remain many...

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  • Despite the advances in the development of new drugs, a drug may never reach the target organ, or it may be difficult to achieve the necessary level of drug in the body. Large doses can result in serious side effects, and can harm normal cells and organs as well as diseased cells. Hence controlled release and the targeting of delivery systems must evolve in parallel to drug research.

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  • While researching this book, I came across a letter in the journal Nature asking for caution in the current trend for the use of humorous nomenclature for newly discovered genes1, the author referring to the tumour suppressor gene Pokemon, which I have briefly described in Chapter 4.

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  • The present study aimed to investigate the role played by the leaflets of the plasma membrane in the uptake of drugs into cells and in their extrusion by P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1. Drug accumulation was monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer from trimethylammonium-diphenyl-hexatriene (TMA-DPH) located at the outer leaflet to a rhodamine analog.

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  • Children, in general, are healthier than their adult counterparts, particularly as adults reach the fifth decade of life and beyond. However, children do have multiple acute illnesses each year, and a substantial number of children, often estimated to be 20 percent or more, are burdened with chronic health disorders, some of them disabling or life threatening. Medical attention, including evidence-based prescription of drugs or biologics, is vital for their well-being.

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  • The Internet has become an important form of communication in modern society, with a forecast of 500 million online globally by the year 2003. 1 Its increased use and accessibility have led to a burgeoning of cyber communities, where people of like minds and common interests transcend geographical barriers and communicate with one another on a range of subjects, some trivial, some controversial, and some intensely private.

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  • We have come so far so fast in understanding RNA interference (RNAi) and its central role in biology. Rarely has a novel mechanism in molecular genetics had such broad implications, ranging from gene therapy and drug discovery to our very understanding of what the word ‘gene’ means. Every major pharmaceutical company has a substantial effort now in RNAi technology, and among the smaller biotechnology companies RNAi is the mainstay of several, with

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  • Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among women with gynecologic malignancies in the United States. Advanced ovarian cancers are difficult to cure with the current available chemotherapy, which has many associated systemic side effects. Doxorubicin is one such chemotherapeutic agent that can cause cardiotoxicity. Novel methods of delivering chemotherapy without significant side effects are therefore of critical need.

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  • Numerous studies have compared the outcomes of two competing interventions for multivessel coronary artery disease: coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) and coronary stenting. However, little information has become available since the introduction of drug-eluting stents.

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  • The workshop summarized in this volume was the third international meeting in a series sponsored by the Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to gather information from experts around the world on the threat of drugresistant tuberculosis (TB) and how it can be addressed. The workshop was held April 18-19 and 21, 2011, in New Delhi, India, in collaboration with the Indian National Science Academy (INSA) and the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)....

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  • The role of the ATP-binding cassette ABCB1 in mediating the resistance to chemotherapy in many forms of cancer has been well established. The pro-tein is also endogenously expressed in numerous barrier and excretory tissues, thereby regulating or impacting on drug pharmacokinetic profiles.

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