Drugs acting

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  • Drugs Acting on Motor Systems spinal disorders. Benzodiazepines enhance the effectiveness of the inhibitory transmitter GABA (p. 226) at GABAA receptors. Baclofen stimulates GABAB receptors. !2-Adrenoceptor agonists such as clonidine and tizanidine probably act presynaptically to inhibit release of excitatory amino acid transmitters. The convulsant toxins, tetanus toxin (cause of wound tetanus) and strychnine diminish the efficacy of interneuronal synaptic inhibition mediated by the amino acid glycine (A).

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  • Introduction: Amphetamines are a group of drugs stimulating the central nervous system; they act on the cerebral cortex to enhance psychic activities, resulting in the removal of general fatigue and drowsiness and thus in the transient improvement of working efficiency. Their abuse causes dependence, hallucination, delusion and changes in personality. Because of such harmfulness of the drugs, their use and possession are prohibited by the Stimulant Drugs Control Law in Japan [1].

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  • General Anesthetic Drugs sic, an injectable anesthetic, a short-acting muscle relaxant, and a low dose of a neuroleptic. In regional anesthesia (spinal anesthesia) with a local anesthetic (p. 204), nociception is eliminated, while consciousness is preserved. This procedure, therefore, does not fall under the definition of general anesthesia. According to their mode of application, general anesthetics in the restricted sense are divided into inhalational (gaseous, volatile) and injectable agents.

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  • Adverse Drug Effects premature breakdown of red blood cells (hemolysis) in subjects with a glucose6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. The discipline of pharmacogenetics deals with the importance of the genotype for reactions to drugs. The above forms of hypersensitivity must be distinguished from allergies involving the immune system (p. 72). Lack of selectivity (C). Despite appropriate dosing and normal sensitivity, undesired effects can occur because the drug does not specifically act on the targeted (diseased) tissue or organ.

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  • Introduction: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless gas with the smell of putrid eggs; it can exist in both nonionic and ionic forms in aqueous solution. The ratio of the nonionic form to the total ionized one is influenced by concentration of hydrogen ion in the solution. Under acidic conditions, H2S does not ionized and evaporated from water; under alkaline conditions it is easily ionized and retained in the solution.

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  • Introduction: Boric acid and borax (sodium tetraborate) had been widely used as antiseptics (preservatives) and/or ethical drugs; however, by reevaluation made in Japan, 1985, the questionability was raised on their effectiveness. Nowadays, they are being permitted to be used only for washing or disinfection of the eye as ethical drugs. In recent year, boric acid has been widely used as a household insecticide especially for cockroaches (called “boric acid ball”), resulting in the increase of boric acid poisoning cases.

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  • The reality is more complex since the receptor binding profile of clozapine and the newer atypical antipsychotic agents suggests that D2-receptor blockade is not essential for antipsychotic effect. The atypical drugs act on numerous receptors and modulate several interacting transmitter systems. Clozapine is a highly effective antipsychotic. It has little affinity for the D2-receptor compared with classical drugs but binds more avidly to other dopamine subtypes (e.g. D1, D3 and D4). It blocks muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, as do certain classical agents (e.g.

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  • Introduction: Nicotine is a main water-soluble alkaloid being contained in the tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum), which acts as an inducing compound for smoking-dependence. Twelve kinds of nicotine metabolites are known in rats [1]. Among them, cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine; the half-life (T1/2) of cotinine is much longer (10–20 h) than that of nicotine (24–84 min). The qualitative analysis of cotinine in urine and saliva is being thus carried out as indicators for smoking during its abstinence therapy and for confirming passive smoking.

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  • Anyone who administers drugs acting on cardiovascular adrenergic mechanisms requires an understanding of how they act in order to use them to the best advantage and with safety. Adrenergic mechanisms Classification of sympathomimetics: by mode of action and selectivity for adrenoceptors Individual sympathomimetics Mucosal decongestants Shock Chronic orthostatic hypotension Adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine are formed in the body and are used in therapeutics. The natural synthetic path is: tyrosine — dopa — dopamine — noradrenaline — adrenaline.

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  • The theory of neurohumoral transmission received direct experimental validation nearly a century ago (see von Euler , 1981 ), and extensive investigation during the ensuing years led to its general acceptance. Nerves transmit information across most synapses and neuroeffector junctions by means of specific chemical agents known as neurohumoral transmitters or, more simply, neurotransmitters.

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  • Drugs that act upon the central nervous system (CNS) influence the lives of everyone, every day. These agents are invaluable therapeutically because they can produce specific physiological and psychological effects. Without general anesthetics, modern surgery would be impossible. Drugs that affect the CNS can selectively relieve pain, reduce fever, suppress disordered movement, induce sleep or arousal, reduce the desire to eat, or allay the tendency to vomit. Selectively acting drugs can be used to treat anxiety, mania, depression, or schizophrenia and do so without altering consciousness....

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  • Introduction: Muscle relaxants can be classified into the peripheral-and central-acting drug types ( Table 6.1). The drugs of the peripheral type are also called neuromuscular blocking agents. The peripheralacting muscle relaxants are being used for muscle relaxation upon endotracheal intubation and/or general anaesthesia for surgical operation. The central-acting muscle relaxants are used for treatments of painful muscle contracture caused by locomotorial disorders, and for relaxation of muscle stiffness caused by psychotic tension or by neurosis.

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  • The publication Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (the List, commonly known as the Orange Book) identifies drug products approved on the basis of safety and effectiveness by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act). (For more information, see the Orange Book Preface.)

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  • The skin is the largest organ of the body and its main function is to protect the organism against undesirable effects of the environment. The skin is composed of three different layers: epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. The epidermis contains the stratum corneum, the uppermost layer of the epidermis, that acts as the barrier function of the skin due to its very high density and its low hydration. The dermis is an extensive vascular network providing skin nutrition, repair, thermal regulation and immune response.

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  • Children, in general, are healthier than their adult counterparts, particularly as adults reach the fifth decade of life and beyond. However, children do have multiple acute illnesses each year, and a substantial number of children, often estimated to be 20 percent or more, are burdened with chronic health disorders, some of them disabling or life threatening. Medical attention, including evidence-based prescription of drugs or biologics, is vital for their well-being.

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  • For over 50 years, interest has been expressed in optimizing drug therapy through delivery system design. For many years this revolved around incorporating drugs into erodible or inert polymers, which then acted as platforms for controlled release, an approach that has been well reviewed in the literature.

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  • Description: Identifies drug products approved on the basis of safety and effectiveness by the Food and Drug Administration under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

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  • Most of the people I meet in my work perceive themselves as not capable of much. Some don’t even particularly like themselves. I know how they feel. As a young man I felt the same, and it nearly destroyed me before I acquired the confidence to become a teacher, therapist and organiser of personal development and complementary therapy courses.

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  • How drugs act and interact, how they enter the body, what happens to them inside the body, how they are eliminated from it; the effects of genetics, age, and disease on drug action — these topics are important for, although they will generally not be in the front of the conscious mind of the prescriber, an understanding of them will enhance rational decision taking. Knowledge of the requirements for success and the explanations for failure and for adverse events will enable the doctor to maximise the benefits and minimise the risks of drug therapy. Pharmacodynamics.

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  • Drugs Acting on the Sympathetic Nervous System of the sympathetic division can be considered a means by which the body achieves a state of maximal work capacity as required in fight or flight situations. In both cases, there is a need for vigorous activity of skeletal musculature. To ensure adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients, blood flow in skeletal muscle is increased; cardiac rate and contractility are enhanced, resulting in a larger blood volume being pumped into the circulation. Narrowing of splanchnic blood vessels diverts blood into vascular beds in muscle.

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