Drugs acting

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  • Drugs Acting on Motor Systems spinal disorders. Benzodiazepines enhance the effectiveness of the inhibitory transmitter GABA (p. 226) at GABAA receptors. Baclofen stimulates GABAB receptors. !2-Adrenoceptor agonists such as clonidine and tizanidine probably act presynaptically to inhibit release of excitatory amino acid transmitters. The convulsant toxins, tetanus toxin (cause of wound tetanus) and strychnine diminish the efficacy of interneuronal synaptic inhibition mediated by the amino acid glycine (A).

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Pharmacology for dentistry" presents the following contents: General pharmacology, drug dosage forms, drugs acting on autonomic nervous system, drugs acting on autonomic nervous system, renal pharmacology, drugs acting on central nervous system.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Textbook of organic medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry" presents the following contents: Centralnervous system depressants, central dopaminergic signaling agents, anticonvulsants, central nervous system stimulants, adrenergic agents, drugs acting on the renal system,...

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Pharmacology for anaesthesia and intensive care" presents the following contents: Cardiovascular drugs (Sympathomimetics, adrenoceptor antagonists, anti-arrhythmics ,...), other important drugs (central nervous system, antiemetics and related drugs, drugs acting on the gut, intravenous fluids and minerals,...).

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Medical pharmacology at a glance" presents the following contents: Principles of drug action, drug absorption, distribution and excretion, drug metabolism, local anaesthetics, autonomic nervous system, autonomic drugs acting at cholinergic synapses, drugs acting on the sympathetic system, ocular pharmacology,... and other contents.

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  • Introduction: Amphetamines are a group of drugs stimulating the central nervous system; they act on the cerebral cortex to enhance psychic activities, resulting in the removal of general fatigue and drowsiness and thus in the transient improvement of working efficiency. Their abuse causes dependence, hallucination, delusion and changes in personality. Because of such harmfulness of the drugs, their use and possession are prohibited by the Stimulant Drugs Control Law in Japan [1].

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  • General Anesthetic Drugs sic, an injectable anesthetic, a short-acting muscle relaxant, and a low dose of a neuroleptic. In regional anesthesia (spinal anesthesia) with a local anesthetic (p. 204), nociception is eliminated, while consciousness is preserved. This procedure, therefore, does not fall under the definition of general anesthesia. According to their mode of application, general anesthetics in the restricted sense are divided into inhalational (gaseous, volatile) and injectable agents.

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  • Adverse Drug Effects premature breakdown of red blood cells (hemolysis) in subjects with a glucose6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. The discipline of pharmacogenetics deals with the importance of the genotype for reactions to drugs. The above forms of hypersensitivity must be distinguished from allergies involving the immune system (p. 72). Lack of selectivity (C). Despite appropriate dosing and normal sensitivity, undesired effects can occur because the drug does not specifically act on the targeted (diseased) tissue or organ.

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  • Introduction: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless gas with the smell of putrid eggs; it can exist in both nonionic and ionic forms in aqueous solution. The ratio of the nonionic form to the total ionized one is influenced by concentration of hydrogen ion in the solution. Under acidic conditions, H2S does not ionized and evaporated from water; under alkaline conditions it is easily ionized and retained in the solution.

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  • Introduction: Boric acid and borax (sodium tetraborate) had been widely used as antiseptics (preservatives) and/or ethical drugs; however, by reevaluation made in Japan, 1985, the questionability was raised on their effectiveness. Nowadays, they are being permitted to be used only for washing or disinfection of the eye as ethical drugs. In recent year, boric acid has been widely used as a household insecticide especially for cockroaches (called “boric acid ball”), resulting in the increase of boric acid poisoning cases.

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  • The reality is more complex since the receptor binding profile of clozapine and the newer atypical antipsychotic agents suggests that D2-receptor blockade is not essential for antipsychotic effect. The atypical drugs act on numerous receptors and modulate several interacting transmitter systems. Clozapine is a highly effective antipsychotic. It has little affinity for the D2-receptor compared with classical drugs but binds more avidly to other dopamine subtypes (e.g. D1, D3 and D4). It blocks muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, as do certain classical agents (e.g.

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  • Introduction: Nicotine is a main water-soluble alkaloid being contained in the tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum), which acts as an inducing compound for smoking-dependence. Twelve kinds of nicotine metabolites are known in rats [1]. Among them, cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine; the half-life (T1/2) of cotinine is much longer (10–20 h) than that of nicotine (24–84 min). The qualitative analysis of cotinine in urine and saliva is being thus carried out as indicators for smoking during its abstinence therapy and for confirming passive smoking.

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  • Anyone who administers drugs acting on cardiovascular adrenergic mechanisms requires an understanding of how they act in order to use them to the best advantage and with safety. Adrenergic mechanisms Classification of sympathomimetics: by mode of action and selectivity for adrenoceptors Individual sympathomimetics Mucosal decongestants Shock Chronic orthostatic hypotension Adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine are formed in the body and are used in therapeutics. The natural synthetic path is: tyrosine — dopa — dopamine — noradrenaline — adrenaline.

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  • The theory of neurohumoral transmission received direct experimental validation nearly a century ago (see von Euler , 1981 ), and extensive investigation during the ensuing years led to its general acceptance. Nerves transmit information across most synapses and neuroeffector junctions by means of specific chemical agents known as neurohumoral transmitters or, more simply, neurotransmitters.

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  • Drugs that act upon the central nervous system (CNS) influence the lives of everyone, every day. These agents are invaluable therapeutically because they can produce specific physiological and psychological effects. Without general anesthetics, modern surgery would be impossible. Drugs that affect the CNS can selectively relieve pain, reduce fever, suppress disordered movement, induce sleep or arousal, reduce the desire to eat, or allay the tendency to vomit. Selectively acting drugs can be used to treat anxiety, mania, depression, or schizophrenia and do so without altering consciousness....

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  • Introduction: Muscle relaxants can be classified into the peripheral-and central-acting drug types ( Table 6.1). The drugs of the peripheral type are also called neuromuscular blocking agents. The peripheralacting muscle relaxants are being used for muscle relaxation upon endotracheal intubation and/or general anaesthesia for surgical operation. The central-acting muscle relaxants are used for treatments of painful muscle contracture caused by locomotorial disorders, and for relaxation of muscle stiffness caused by psychotic tension or by neurosis.

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  • The publication Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (the List, commonly known as the Orange Book) identifies drug products approved on the basis of safety and effectiveness by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act). (For more information, see the Orange Book Preface.)

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  • The skin is the largest organ of the body and its main function is to protect the organism against undesirable effects of the environment. The skin is composed of three different layers: epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. The epidermis contains the stratum corneum, the uppermost layer of the epidermis, that acts as the barrier function of the skin due to its very high density and its low hydration. The dermis is an extensive vascular network providing skin nutrition, repair, thermal regulation and immune response.

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  • Children, in general, are healthier than their adult counterparts, particularly as adults reach the fifth decade of life and beyond. However, children do have multiple acute illnesses each year, and a substantial number of children, often estimated to be 20 percent or more, are burdened with chronic health disorders, some of them disabling or life threatening. Medical attention, including evidence-based prescription of drugs or biologics, is vital for their well-being.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Pharmacology for dentistry" presents the following contents: Autacoids and respiratory system, drugs used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, drugs acting on blood and blood forming organs, endocrine pharmacology, dental pharmacology, miscellaneous drugs,...

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