Xem 1-20 trên 2057 kết quả Drugs
  • Foreword: It was with great pleasure that I accepted the invitation to write the foreword for Drugs and Poisons in Humans. A Handbook of Practical Analysis. Dr. Osamu Suzuki and Dr. Mikio Yashiki, two outstanding Japanese scientists, fi rst published the Handbook in Japanese in 2002. Specialists throughout Japan contributed analytical methods for a wide variety of therapeutic and illicit drugs, pesticides, and natural toxins and alkaloids. In fact, rarely has such a wide spectrum of analytes and metabolites been addressed within a single reference manual....

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  • Understanding the basics of pharmacology is an essential nursing responsibility. Pharmacology is the science that deals with the physical and chemical properties, and biochemical and physiologic effects, of drugs. It includes the areas of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, pharmacotherapeutics, pharmacognosy, and toxicodynamics.

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  • Introduction: Blood, urine and stomach contents (including gastric lavage fluid and vomitus) are usually used as specimens for analysis of drugs and poisons for living subjects. A blood concentration of a toxin can be an indicator for estimation of intoxication degree. Urine sometimes contains large amounts of metabolites and/or an unchanged form of a toxin; it contains low levels of proteins, which usually interfere with analysis, and thus is suitable for screening tests using immunoassays without tedious pretreatments.

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  • Introduction: Small amount of drugs and poisons incorporated into human bodies are hidden among large amounts of biological components, such as proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and membranes. It is not easy to detect only a target compound from such complicated matrices. Before instrumental analysis, extraction procedure is usually essential and very important.

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  • Introduction: The advancement of technologies was marvelous during the past half century; new analytical instruments have been being invented and improved. About 30 years ago, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was being used most widely for detection and identification of drugs and poisons. Around that time, the use of GC/MS started in the field of medicine. Therefore, an ideal procedure for analysis of drugs and poisons was considered to be the screening by TLC, followed by the final identification and quantitation by GC/MS.

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  • Introduction: Phencyclidine (PCP) ( Fig. 8.1), a synthetic arylcyclohexylamine hallucinogen, had been first applied as an anaesthetic to animals and then to humans for a short period. PCP is known by street names of “angel dust” and “crystal”. Illicit use of PCP first appeared during mid-1960s along the West Coast, and then peaked in the United States in 1979; illicit PCP use declined by 1992. However, daily use of PCP has remained stable among young school seniors over the past decade; PCP is thus being an important drug of abuse [1–3].

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  • Introduction: Forensic autopsy is an important task for proving crimes medically; unfortunately, every department of legal medicine of Japanese universities is suffering from insufficient staffs and budget. About 30 years ago, one of the authors started the analysis of drugs and poisons at the Department of Legal Medicine, Hiroshima University School of Medicine. At that time, the author did not have much knowledge about poison analysis; but it is a good memory that many good friends of toxicological societies gave the author many useful suggestions on analytical methods.

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  • Introduction: Barbiturates are being widely used as antiepileptics, hypnotics and anaesthetics ( Figure 6.1 and Table 6.1). The incidence of barbiturate poisoning cases tends to increase in Japan ( Figure 6.2) [1]. A majority of the barbiturate drugs is being controlled by the Narcotics ⊡ Figure 6.1 Structures of barbiturates. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005 302 Barbiturates ⊡ Figure 6.2 Incidence of fatal barbiturate poisoning cases. Since fatal cases due to Vegetamin® tablets containing phenobarbital are many, its incidence rate is also shown in this figure.

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  • Introduction: Amphetamines are a group of drugs stimulating the central nervous system; they act on the cerebral cortex to enhance psychic activities, resulting in the removal of general fatigue and drowsiness and thus in the transient improvement of working efficiency. Their abuse causes dependence, hallucination, delusion and changes in personality. Because of such harmfulness of the drugs, their use and possession are prohibited by the Stimulant Drugs Control Law in Japan [1].

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  • Introduction: Pentazocine ( Fig. 5.1) is a non-narcotic analgesic, but shows mild dependence; there are many cases of pentazocine abuse especially for medical and co-medical workers. The drug is being regulated as a subclass compound of narcotics (DEA class: IV). Pentazocine in both antemortem and postmortem specimens is being analyzed by GC [1–4], HPLC [5–7] and GC/MS [8]. In this chapter, a simple method for GC/MS analysis of pentazocine in human whole blood and urine is presented. ⊡ Figure 5.1 Structures of pentazocine and dextromethorphan (IS).

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  • Drugs for the Treatment of Peptic Ulcers cipitated antacid or, phosphate depletion of the body with excessive intake of Al(OH)3. Na+ ions remain in solution even in the presence of HCO3–-rich pancreatic secretions and are subject to absorption, like HCO3–. Because of the uptake of Na+, use of NaHCO3 must be avoided in conditions requiring restriction of NaCl intake, such as hypertension, cardiac failure, and edema. Since food has a buffering effect, antacids are taken between meals (e.g., 1 and 3 h after meals and at bedtime). Nonabsorbable antacids are preferred.

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  • Introduction: Butyrophenone drugs including haloperidol are being widely used in the field of psychiatry. The acute butyrophenone poisoning incidents sometimes take place; in such cases, the analysis of a butyrophenone becomes necessary in forensic toxicology or clinical toxicology. Their analysis is being made by GC [1–4], GC/MS [5–6], HPLC [7–15] and LC/MS [16,17]. Six butyrophenones are now available as ethical drugs in Japan ( Fig. 2.1); the most typical ones are haloperidol and bromperidol, which most frequently cause poisoning incidents among butyrophenones.

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  • Introduction: Propionic acid derivative analgesic-antipyretics ( Table 2.1) are non-steroidal and antiinflammatory drugs. As one of mechanisms of their pharmacological actions, inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis can be mentioned. Although fatal cases due to propionic acid derivative analgesic-antipyretics are not many in the world, the incidence of poisoning (including survived cases) by this drug group is relatively high among therapeutic drugs in Japan [1].

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  • General Anesthetic Drugs sic, an injectable anesthetic, a short-acting muscle relaxant, and a low dose of a neuroleptic. In regional anesthesia (spinal anesthesia) with a local anesthetic (p. 204), nociception is eliminated, while consciousness is preserved. This procedure, therefore, does not fall under the definition of general anesthesia. According to their mode of application, general anesthetics in the restricted sense are divided into inhalational (gaseous, volatile) and injectable agents.

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  • Introduction: Bromisovalum (α-bromoisovalerylurea, bromovalerylurea, Brovarin) ( Figure 5.1) has long been being used as a hypnotics or sedative since many years ago. It is not only prescribed as an ethical drug, but also contained in some analgesic- antipyretics and hypnotics being sold as over-the-counter drugs. Because of the easiness of getting it, bromisovalum is one of the most important drugs in poisoning in Japan. The analysis of bromisovalum is being made by GC [1, 2], GC/MS [3], HPLC [4, 5] and LC/MS [6–8].

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  • Introduction: Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) ( Figure 4.1) has been being used as an analgesic-antipyretic for a long time; it is contained in many of over-the-counter drugs. Although ASA is relatively safe, various poisoning symptoms, such as lowered consciousness levels, hypotension, pulmonary edema and convulsion, were reported upon ingestion of a large amount of this drug [1]. For analysis of ASA, methods by HPLC [2–19], GC [20–23], GC/MS [24] and capillary electrophoresis [25–27] were reported; among these methods, HPLC is most popular. ...

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  • Quantification of Drug Action the dose at which one-half of the group has responded. The dose range encompassing the dose-frequency relationship reflects the variation in individual sensitivity to the drug. Although similar in shape, a dose-frequency relationship has, thus, a different meaning than does a dose-effect relationship. The latter can be evaluated in one individual and results from an intraindividual dependency of the effect on drug concentration.

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  • Adverse Drug Effects premature breakdown of red blood cells (hemolysis) in subjects with a glucose6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. The discipline of pharmacogenetics deals with the importance of the genotype for reactions to drugs. The above forms of hypersensitivity must be distinguished from allergies involving the immune system (p. 72). Lack of selectivity (C). Despite appropriate dosing and normal sensitivity, undesired effects can occur because the drug does not specifically act on the targeted (diseased) tissue or organ.

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  • Drugs for the Suppression of Pain (Analgesics) ing, or burning character, i.e., pain that can be localized only poorly. Impulse traffic in the neo- and paleospinothalamic pathways is subject to modulation by descending projections that originate from the reticular formation and terminate at second-order neurons, at their synapses with first-order neurons, or at spinal segmental interneurons (descending antinociceptive system).

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  • Introduction: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD, lysergide) is known as one of the most powerful hallucinogenic drugs of abuse. LSD was explosively abused in U.S.A. in the latter half of the 1960s. In Japan, the amount of seizure of LSD is much smaller than that of methamphetamine. However, in recent years, it has been increasing markedly; 3,500 tablets of LSD were seized in 1996, while 53,043 tablets in 2000 (about 15-fold increase), arousing a serious concern about the phenomenon. LSD is a compound chemically modified from ergot alkaloid produced by a bacterium Claviceps purpurea.

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