upiter is by far the biggest planet in the solar system. It is a vast planet
of swirling gases and storms of unimaginable fury. As the fifth planet
out, it is the nearest gas giant, a planet made almost completely of
gases, to the Sun. It is not much smaller than some of the stars called brown
dwarfs. Jupiter does not shine itself, but reflects sunlight as all planets do.
Even so, its huge pull of gravity holds more than 60 moons in orbit around it.
Jupiter is named after the Roman king of the gods, also called Jove....
Water is one of the basic elements for life. It is even assumed that the evolution
of life is only possible if there is liquid water present. A water molecule has some
remarkable properties that make it quite unique in the universe. In the first chapter
of this book we will review these basic properties of water and the role of water on
Earth. All ancient civilizations realized the importance of water and their cities were
constructed near great reservoirs of water.
The ruler of a planet with a black dwarf sun had called a meeting of the council. It was some time before they were assembled, and he waited patiently without thought. When the patchwork of mentalities was complete he allowed the conclusions of the prognosticator to occupy his mind. A wall of unanimous incredulity sprang up. The statement was that when the
Abstract: “Brown dwarfs” is the collective name for objects more massive than giant
planets such as Jupiter but less massive than M dwarf stars. This review gives a brief
description of the classification and chemistry of low mass dwarfs. The current spectral
classification of stars includes L and T dwarfs that encompass the coolest known stars
and substellar objects. The relatively low atmospheric temperatures and high total
pressures in substellar dwarfs lead to molecular gas and condensate chemistry.