We normally think of the eye as an organ for vision, but due to the discovery of
additional nerve connections from recently-detected novel photoreceptor cells in
the eye to the brain, it is now understood how light also mediates and controls a
large number of biochemical processes in the human body. The most important
findings are related to the control of the biological clock and to the regulation of
some important hormones through regular light-dark rhythms. This in turn means
that lighting has a large influence on health, well-being and alertness.
The physiological phenomenon that the antisweet taste effect of gymnemic
acid (GA) is diminished by application of c-cyclodextrin (c-CD) to the
mouth was evaluated at the molecular level using isothermal titration
calorimetry, NMR and dynamic light scattering. These analyses showed
that GA specifically binds to c-CD.
This book includes contributions from researchers around the world on numerical developments and applications to predict fluid flow and heat transfer, with an emphasis on thermal hydraulics computational fluid dynamics. Our ability to simulate larger problems with greater fidelity has vastly expanded over the past decade. The collection of material presented in this book augments the ever-increasing body of knowledge concerning the important topic of thermal hydraulics.
The quantum theory is the first theoretical approach that helps one to successfully understand the atomic and sub-atomic worlds which are too far from the cognition based on the common intuition or the experience of the daily-life. This is a very coherent theory in which a good system of hypotheses and appropriate mathematical methods allow one to describe exactly the dynamics of the quantum systems whose measurements are systematically affected by objective uncertainties.
Mastering the concepts of probability can cast new light on situations in which randomness and chance appear to rule. With an emphasis on why probability works and how it can be applied, Henk Tijms introduces the reader to the world of probability in an informal way. Lotteries and casino games provide a natural source of motivation, and he carefully discusses these with many worked examples to illustrate the key concepts from probability theory. Henk Tijms has been a professor in Operations Research at the Vrije University in Amsterdam since 1976.
The optical fibre technology is one of the hop topics developed at the beginning of the 21th
century and could do many services for application dealing with lighting, sensing and
communicating systems. Many improvements have been carried out since 30 years to reduce
the fibre attenuation and to improve the fibre performance. Nowadays, new applications
have been developed over the scientific community and this book titled “Optical Fibre, New
Developments” fits into this paradigm.
Ju Park et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:223 http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/6/1/223
Optimal synthesis and characterization of Ag nanofluids by electrical explosion of wires in liquids
Eun Ju Park1, Seung Won Lee2, In Cheol Bang2, Hyung Wook Park1*
Abstract Silver nanoparticles were produced by electrical explosion of wires in liquids with no additive. In this study, we optimized the fabrication method and examined the effects of manufacturing process parameters.
In later eras, new materials have been closely associated with radical change. The development of
paper was as important as the printing press in revolutionising communications. The introduction
of gunpowder into Europe transformed warfare. In more modern times, gas lighting only became
demonstrably superior to oil and candles with the introduction of the gas mantle, composed of
novel materials such as thorium and cerium oxides. A hundred years ago electric filament lamps
were made possible by other novel and fairly unusual materials, osmium and tungsten.
Looking at a recent Cairns Group proposal on domestic support it can be seen that they want to
strengthen the Green Box provision dealing with direct payments (including structural adjustment,
environment and regional assistance) while capping overall spending on direct payments under the
Green Box. As well, they hope to subject certain support sub-categories in the Box to reduction
commitments. The Cairns Group paper further proposes to strengthen transparency, notification
and review mechanisms to ensure programs meet the criteria set out in the Green Box.
Current average fuel economy levels vary consid-
erably by country. Across the OECD the average
figure in 2005 was around 8 litres per 100 km for
new cars (including SUVs and minivans and in-
cluding both gasoline and diesel vehicles). With a
50% fuel economy improvement, the average new
car performance in OECD markets would improve
to around 4 litres per 100 km (about 90 g/km of
An important feature in many countries is the role of securitization in the lending and housing
prices boom and burst. At the macroeconomic level, the dynamics of the relationship between
lending, housing prices and securitization have been largely unexplored although a rising
interest has recently emerged with the financial crisis.
Clearly, man-made projects are not new: monuments surviving from the earliest civilizations testify
to the incredible achievements of our forebears and still evoke our wonder and admiration. Modern
projects, for all their technological sophistication, are not necessarily greater in scale than some
of those early mammoth works.
The poorly known mechanism of inhibition of cholinesterases by inorganic
mercury (HgCl2) has been studied with a view to using these enzymes as
biomarkers or as biological components of biosensors to survey polluted
areas. The inhibition of a variety of cholinesterases by HgCl2
was investi-gated by kinetic studies, X-ray crystallography, and dynamic light scatter-ing.
The creeks are comparatively less along Tamil Nadu
coast and the analysis of LandSat and Thematic Mapper
data of April 1983 and December 1983 shows that the
'creeks are dynamically changing due to the seasonal
variations. The study of Ennore and Kovalam creeks are
also dynamically changing during the southwest
monsoon and suffer excessive sedimentation during this
period. The already exiting Jetties near Kalpakkam and
Madras harbour cause excessive sedimentation near
the Kovalam creeks and Ennore creeks.
Changes in the oligomeric status of MutS protein was probed in solution
by dynamic light scattering (DLS), and corroborated by sedimentation ana-lyses. In the absence of any nucleotide cofactor, free MutS protein [hydro-dynamic radius (Rh) of 10–12 nm] shows a small increment in size (Rh
14 nm) following the addition of homoduplex DNA (121 bp), whereas the
same increases to about 18–20 nm with heteroduplex DNA containing a
The excavations conducted by the Greek Archæological Society at Athens from 1883 to 1889 have laid bare
the entire surface of the Acropolis, and shed an unexpected light upon the early history of Attic art. Many questions which once seemed unanswerable are now definitively answered, and, on the other hand, many new
questions have been raised.
Porcine heart cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase (s-MDH) is a dimeric protein (2 · 35 kDa). We have studied equilibrium unfolding and refolding of s-MDH using activity assay, ﬂuorescence, far-UV and near-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, hydrophobic probe-1-anilino8-napthalene sulfonic acid binding, dynamic light scattering, and chromatographic (HPLC) techniques. The unfolding and refolding transitions are reversible and show the presence of two equilibrium intermediate states.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp Original article đề tài: Dynamics of light interception, leaf area and biomass production in the establishment year in Populus clones...
The formation and structure of proinsulin C-peptide oligomers has been
investigated by PAGE, NMR spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering.
The results obtained show that C-peptide forms oligomers of different
sizes, and that their formation and size distribution is altered by salt and
divalent metal ions, which indicates that the aggregation process is medi-ated by electrostatic interactions.
The efficiency of light harvesting in higher plant photosynthesis is regulated
in response to external environmental conditions. Under conditions of
excess light, the normally highly efficient light-harvesting system of photo-system II is switched into a state in which unwanted, potentially harmful,
energy is dissipated as heat.