It was during the Depression that hospitals band-
ed together to offer prepaid coverage to citizens.
Prepaid hospital coverage was a way for hospitals to
avoid the financial failure that befell the banking
industry. The approach worked so well that doctors
followed suit a few years later and Blue Cross Blue
Shield organizations were born. Little did anyone
know that the seeds for runaway costs eighty years
later had been planted.
Prepaid, employer-provided insurance quickly
dominated the health care landscape.
Not shown in Fig. 1 are some elements of the network that complicate security efforts.
There may be a corporate firewall or network address translation (NAT) features that will
require communication between the building services staff and IT staff, but will also
provide greater protection against IT threats. There may be other external connections
from a trusted network that bypass the SR, i.e. a modem connection. Also not shown are
physical security implementation details.
In recent years, it has been getting much easier for anyone with a portable laptop to acquire
software that can capture data crossing data networks. Many vendors have created user-friendly
(read easy-to-use) packet decoders that can be installed with minimal cost. These decoders were
intended for troubleshooting purposes but can easily become tools for malicious intent.
Packet snooping by using these decoding programs has another effect: The technique can
be used in impersonation attacks, which are discussed in the next section....
IPS-1 is an intrusion prevention system (IPS) that delivers protection from a wide-range of network threats
using an IPS-1 Sensor that can be placed either on the perimeter of your network or at any location in your
Some of the benefits of IPS-1 include:
Unified security management
Mission-critical protection against known and unknown attacks
Granular forensic analysis
Denial is one of the best-developed coping refl exes in health care
workers, particularly in physicians and nurses. It exists on several
levels, and it is provoked by a number of different but related dynamics.
Most of us in health care—in the profession of caring for patients—
have thought of denial as a self-protective reaction, a shield against the
emotional and psychic turmoil of the environment in which we work.
And for physicians and nurses, where they work is essentially where
It is a well-worked and commonly described dynamic.