Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 76. Eating Disorders
Eating Disorders: Introduction
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are characterized by severe disturbances of eating behavior. The salient feature of anorexia nervosa (AN) is a refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight. Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by abnormal compensatory behaviors, such as self-induced vomiting. AN and BN are distinct clinical syndromes but share certain features in common.
This book offers an overview of the complex interplay between hormonal activation and individual and environmental influences on health and disease in women. The book provides useful information and background material important for treating problems related to the reproductive cycle, eating disorders, drug treatment of women, and clinical and treatment issues in coronary artery disease and breast cancer. This is a medically-oriented book written firstly for the practicing
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are characterized by severe disturbances of eating behavior. The salient feature of anorexia nervosa (AN) is a refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight. Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by abnormal compensatory behaviors, such as self-induced vomiting. AN and BN are distinct clinical syndromes but share certain features in common. Both disorders occur primarily among previously healthy young women who become overly concerned with body shape and weight. ...
Recurrent episodes of binge eating, which is characterized by the consumption of a large amount of food in a short period of time and a feeling that the eating is out of control.
Recurrent inappropriate behavior to compensate for the binge eating, such as self-induced vomiting.
The occurrence of both the binge eating and the inappropriate compensatory behavior at least twice weekly, on average, for 3 months.
Overconcern with body shape and weight.
(BQ) Part 2 book "BRS Behavioral science" presents the following contents: Anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders and related conditions; cognitive, personality, dissociative and eating disorders; psychiatric disorders in children, biologic therapies psychopharmacology,... and other contents.
During the conflict and civil war in the 1980s and 1990s, particularly between 1992 and
1995, armed factions turned the traditional norms of honor and shame into weapons of
war, engaging in rape and sexual assault against women of opposing groups as an ultimate
means of dishonoring entire communities and reducing people's capacities to resist military
advances.2 In response, concerns about women's security led to the imposition of ever
stricter interpretations of what constitutes socially acceptable behavior, supported by the
most conservative reading of the holy scriptures.
Nutrition during childhood and adolescence is essential
for growth and development, health and well-being. [1,2]
Further, eating behaviors established during childhood
track into adulthood and contribute to long-term health
and chronic disease risk. [3,4] Numerous studies have
consistently documented that dietary intake patterns of
American children and adolescents are poor and do not
meet national dietary goals. [5-8] In addition, US food
consumption trend data show a shift over the past few
12 Community Ecology
Two species of gerbils, the 24 g Allenby’s gerbil and the 40 g greater sand gerbil, live together on sand dunes in the Negev Desert. These species are very much alike. They eat mostly seeds (Bar et al. 1984), they are nocturnal, they live in burrows, they are caught by the same predators, and they compete intensively with each other.
Perhaps you began to think about weight loss surgery after a conversation
with your primary care physician, who was concerned about certain health
problems that you have been struggling with that are related to obesity,
such as heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, or sleep apnea.
Perhaps as weight loss surgeries of various types became more popular in the
media, you learned more about one or more of the procedures and thought
that some form of weight loss surgery might be right for you.
AT is recognized as the largest energy store of free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG),
and more recently as an endocrine organ that regulates the secretion of adipokines, which
coordinate energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity and feeding behavior, not only in adults
but also in pediatric populations. Imbalance between visceral and subcutaneous AT is
capable of altering its physiology.
If you are going to lose excess weight permanently, if you are
going to reshape your body, it’s probably best that you forget
what you know about overeating and weight gain. I wrote this
book to provide a beginning to a new way forward, away from
what I perceive as outdated, irrational, ineffective, harmful, and
even dehumanizing approaches to weight management.
Don’t get me wrong. Weight loss is still a matter of eating less
and exercising more, of taking in fewer calories and burning
them up more effectively.
Imbalanced feeding leads to excess feeding of some nutrients whilst others remain
deficient (Photo 1). This not only reduces milk production and increases costs per kg
milk, but also affects various physiological functions including long term animal health,
fertility and productivity. To ensure improved productivity it is necessary to augment and
secure feed resources through short and long term planning. It is also essential that milk
producers feed their animals the nutrients in amounts that match the physiological needs
and objective of keeping the animal.
Prior research features a variety of approaches to stock trading, including those pre-
sented here. Automated market making has been studied in [3–5]. Reinforcement learn-
ing has been previously used to adjust the parameters of a market-making strategy in
response to market behavior . Other approaches to automated stock trading include
the reverse strategy and VWAP trading [5, 6]. A brief overview of these common ap-
proaches can be found in .
Price theory is made richer by the fact that each individual’s choices can affect the
opportunities available to others. If you decide to eat all of the cake, your roommate
cannot decide to eat some too. An equilibrium is an outcome in which each person’s
behavior is compatible with the restrictions imposed by everybody else’s behavior. In
many situations, it is possible to say both that there is only one possible equilibrium
and that there are good reasons to expect that equilibrium to actually come about. This
enables the economist to make predictions about the world....
Overweight and obesity in the United States among adults
and children has increased significantly over the last two
decades. Those following typical American eating and
activity patterns are likely to be consuming diets in excess
of their energy requirements. However, caloric intake is
only one side of the energy balance equation. Caloric
expenditure needs to be in balance with caloric intake to
maintain body weight and must exceed caloric intake to
achieve weight loss (see tables 3 and 4).
At the end of a day and a half of presentations and discussion, participants concluded that,
while more research is needed, there are immediate opportunities to mediate the growing health
risks associated with poor eating and physical inactivity. These areas suggest both voluntary and
regulatory strategies that focus on strengthening industry accountability, while changing the
food and physical activity environment and promoting healthier behaviors.