This book is about the distribution and abundance of different
types of organism, and about the physical, chemical but especially
the biological features and interactions that determine these
distributions and abundances.
Unlike some other sciences, the subject matter of ecology is
apparent to everybody: most people have observed and pondered
nature, and in this sense most people are ecologists of sorts. But
ecology is not an easy science.
Whereas the mechanical performance of plant organs has often been discussed in
evolutionary biology [1,2], tree biomechanics has rarely been considered in the
context of functional ecology. Functional ecology aims at understanding the functions
of organisms that result in fluxes of biomass or energy within an ecosystem,
a forest. This discipline studies the processes controlling these fluxes, at either
the scale of an individual, community, or ecosystem, with their response to natural
or anthropic environmental variations....
An Ecosystem Approach provides a modern perspective of insect ecology that integrates two approaches traditionally used to study insect ecology: evolutionary and ecosystem. This integration substantially broadens the scope of insect ecology and contributes to prediction and resolution of the effects of current environmental changes, as these affect and are affected by insects. The third edition includes an updated and expanded synthesis of feedback and interactions between insects and their environment.
Landscape ecology continues to grow as an exciting, dynamic ecological discipline.
With its broadscale emphasis and multidisciplinary approach, landscape
ecology lends itself both to basic research and to applications in land
management, land-use planning, wildlife management, ecosystem management,
and conservation biology.
This book is intended to be a presentation of alkaloids from chemical, biological
and ecological points of view. It is a text for chemists, biologists and ecologists
alike. However, the intended audience of this work is not limited to scientists,
teachers and other present and future specialists. In fact, I wrote this book
because I felt the need for it as a university educator and as a scientific enthusiast
on the subject.
The science of ecology and the practice of management are critical to
our understanding of the Earth’s ecosystems and our efforts to conserve
them. This book attempts to bridge the gap between ecology and natural
resource management and, in particular, focuses on the discipline of
plant ecology as a foundation for vegetation and wildlife management.
It describes how concepts and approaches used by ecologists to study
communities and ecosystems can be applied to their management. Guy
Average depth model has a variety of applications in hydraulic engineering,
especially in applications that flow depth is much smaller than the width of the flow.
In this method the vertical variation is negligible and the hydraulic variables
average integrated from channel bed to the surface free for the vertical axis. in
equations arising management, pure hydrostatic pressure is assumed that
not really valid in the case of flow in the bed is curved and can not be described
curvature effects of the bed.
This book follows in the footsteps of two previous efforts—Snakes: Ecology
and Evolutionary Biology (1987) and Snakes: Ecology and Behavior
(1993)—to provide established and new researchers with a current synopsis
of snake ecology. In the preface to each of these earlier works, one of us
(R. A. S.) admitted that he had erred in assuming that another “Biology of
the Serpentes” book was not worth tackling. And after the fi rst two books,
we thought that perhaps yet another book was not needed—we were wrong
At the risk of merely adding to the bloated and growing literature available
on the disciplines of ecology and management while making little
meritorious contribution to either, this book attempts to bridge the gap
between these literatures and disciplines. As with most books, there are
few data and concepts in this text that have not been recorded previously.
However, ecology and management have not always been explicitly
linked, although each discipline can benefit from the other.
The Fuzzy Set Theory developed by L. Zadeh (Zadeh 1965) as a possible way to
handle uncertainty is particularly useful for the representation of vague expert
knowledge and processing uncertain or imprecise information. The Fuzzy Set
Theory is based on an extension of the classical meaning of the term "set" and
formulates specific logical and arithmetical operations for processing information
defined in the form of fuzzy sets and fuzzy rules.
Scale is a unifying concept that cuts across all natural and social sciences. At the
same time, scaling is a common challenge in both basic and applied research.
Accordingly, scale and scaling have become two of the most widely used buzzwords
in ecology today. Over the past two decades, more than a dozen books and many
more journal papers have been published on the problems of scale and scaling in
ecology and geophysical sciences. These publications, as reviewed in the chapters of
this book, have contributed significantly to our current understanding of scale issues.
In this introductory chapter, we indicate the aims
and structure of this book. We also indicate some
of the ways in which the book is not synoptic in its
coverage, but rather offers an interlinked account
of some major developments in our understanding
of the dynamics of ecological systems, from
populations to communities, along with practical
applications to important problems.
Environmental managers, engineers, and scientists who have had experience with industrial and
hazardous waste management problems have noted the need for a handbook that is comprehensive
in its scope, directly applicable to daily waste management problems of specific
industries, and widely acceptable by practicing environmental professionals and educators.
Enzymes that function within plants, animals, and microorganisms are fundamental to
life, and their contributions to metabolic pathways and processes have been studied extensively.
For over 100 years there has been interest in what today is called ecological or
environmental enzymology. This aspect of enzymology originates from the work of
Woods, who, in 1899, wrote about the survival and function in soil of plant peroxidases
following their release from decaying plant roots.
Environmental managers, engineers, and scientists who have had experience with hazardous
industrial waste problems have noted the need for a book that is comprehensive in its scope,
directly applicable to daily hazardous industrial waste treatment, and widely acceptable by
practicing environmental professionals and educators
Human activities may seriously affect the quality of aquatic ecosystems. Pathogen
organisms, nutrients, heavy metals, toxic elements, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and
various other organic micropollutants enter to aquatic environment through a range of
point and diffuse sources. The presence of these compounds has adverse impacts on
aquatic biota. It is well recognised that the distribution and the abundance of various
species in aquatic systems are directly related to the water quality and hydrological
The notion of environmental damage is a rather recent development in
tort law on both a national and an international level. Constant degradation
of environmental goods, such as air, water and wildlife, by
emissions and old dumpsites and spectacular industrial accidents causing
pollution created a new awareness by the public of the environment.
National legislation and new international treaties show that tort
liability is attributed an increasing role in the protection of the environment
The book contains fundamentals of solar radiation, its ecological impacts, applications, especially in agriculture, architecture, thermal and electric energy. Chapters are written by numerous experienced scientists in the field from various parts of the world. Apart from chapter one which is the introductory chapter of the book, that gives a general topic insight of the book, there are 24 more chapters that cover various fields of solar radiation.
Words can easily borrow, but the meaning of love from the heart of a people is difficult to describe. So I want to ask for forgiveness from the people that support can not be appreciated in the words and from those who, by any chance, I forgot to mention.
First of all what I want to thank prof. dr.ir. Wind Herman and his wife - Joke. The interviews with prof. Wind held in Bangkok and his decision has helped me to be here, at the University of Twente, to carry out my doctoral research. Herman and Joke, I will never forget...
Ecological Applications at the Level of Organisms and Single-Species Populations: Restoration, Biosecurity and Conservation
The expanding human population (Figure 7.1) has created a wide variety of environmental problems. Our species is not unique in depleting and contaminating the environment but we are certainly unique in using ﬁre, fossil fuels and nuclear ﬁssion to provide the energy to do work.