This book, now in its third edition, began almost 25 years ago when Weed
Ecology: Implications for Vegetation Management was published in 1984. That
text concentrated on the need for farmers, foresters, rangeland managers, and the
researchers who advised them to understand better the biology of weeds and
the role people play in creating and maintaining weeds in agriculture and other
production systems. We were assisted in that first effort by the writings of many
early scientists, such as J. L. Harper, H. G. Baker, and E. J.
The history and development of the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem in the southeastern
United States has intrigued natural resource professionals, researchers, and the general
public for many decades. Prior to European settlement, longleaf pine forests were one of the
most extensive ecosystems in North America. Most recent estimates suggest that only about
2.2% of the original area remains today, making it one of the most threatened ecosystems in
In response to a growing need to bridge aspects of geography and ecology, Troll
(1950, 1968) coined the term “landscape ecology,” which was adopted as a new
scientific discipline. According to Troll (1968), the landscape can be studied in terms
of its morphology, classification, and changes in time (history), as well as the
functional relationships between its components, which he called landscape ecology.
Troll also considered that problems of landscape protection as well as management
should be included in geographical analyses of landscapes.
The designation used and the presentation of the material in this publication do not
imply the express of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United
Nations Economic and Social commission for Asian and the Pacific (UNESCAP)
concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
The views expressed in this publication are those of authors and do not necessarily
reflect the view of UNESCAP.
Mention of firm names and commercial products does not imply the endorsement of the...
Human activities are affecting the global environment in myriad
ways, with numerous direct and indirect effects on ecosystems.
The climate and atmospheric composition of Earth are changing
rapidly. Humans have directly modified half of the ice-free terrestrial
surface and use 40% of terrestrial production. Our actions are
causing the sixth major extinction event in the history of life on
Earth and are radically modifying the interactions among forests,
fields, streams, and oceans.
The mountainous area occupies three fourth of the total area of Binh Dinh Province. The potential of landuse is very large. However, under the influence of irrational exploitation and natural disasters in the past, the land resource has declined, thus leading to the decline of forest resource. Furthermore, the increase of unused land and bare hills along with the decrease in the cultivated area seriously influenced on the ecological environment as well as the socio-economic development.
The programme comprises a feed data library and various ‘Nutrition masters’. To create the
feed data library, a wide range of feed ingredients including green and dry fodders, tree leaves,
grains, oil cakes, agro-industrial by-products etc. were collected from different agro-ecological
zones of the country and analyzed for chemical composition and nutritive value.
Over the past 25 years the discipline of ecotoxicology has undergone two
major developments. Firstly, new assays have been developed, deploying
organisms that bear added relevance to the specific environment under
investigation. Several new procedures assess the effects on organisms after
exposure to environmental samples rather than to spiked water or sediment
samples. Also noteworthy is the considerable attention given to effects of
chronic exposure to low levels of contaminants.