Ecological communities

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  • The scope of this book is to demonstrate that we do have an ecosystem theory that can be used to describe ecosystem structure and function. It was previously shown in the book, Integration of Ecosystem Theories: A Pattern (3rd edition, 2002), that the various contributions to systems ecology are consistent and together form a pattern of ecological processes. My book with Yuri Svirezhev, Toward a Thermodynamic Theory of Ecosystems (2004), presented the thermodynamics of this pattern in a mathematical language....

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  • In this introductory chapter, we indicate the aims and structure of this book. We also indicate some of the ways in which the book is not synoptic in its coverage, but rather offers an interlinked account of some major developments in our understanding of the dynamics of ecological systems, from populations to communities, along with practical applications to important problems.

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  • Research in tropical forestry is confronted with the task of finding strategies to alleviate pressure on remaining forests, and techniques to enhance forest regeneration and restore abandoned lands, using productive alternatives that can be attractive to local human populations. In addition, sustainable forestry in tropical countries must be supported by adequate policies to promote and maintain specific activities at local and regional scales.

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  • Whereas the mechanical performance of plant organs has often been discussed in evolutionary biology [1,2], tree biomechanics has rarely been considered in the context of functional ecology. Functional ecology aims at understanding the functions of organisms that result in fluxes of biomass or energy within an ecosystem, e.g., a forest. This discipline studies the processes controlling these fluxes, at either the scale of an individual, community, or ecosystem, with their response to natural or anthropic environmental variations....

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  • Because of its accessibility, the intertidal zone has offered excellent opportunities to study the adaptations of individual organisms and populations to their environment, and the factors controlling community composition. Early work on seashores concentrated on the problems of life in an environment characterized by steep gradients in physical conditions, but in more recent years, the focus of research on the fascinating shore ecosystems has been on understanding the processes controlling their productivity and dynamic functioning.

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  • Diversity of plant form and life history and their distribution onto different habitats suggest that plant functions should underlie this diversity, providing tools to successfully and differentially thrive in every habitat. The knowledge of these functions is then the key to understand community and ecosystem structure and functioning, something that attracted the interest and effort of many plant ecologists trying to establish patterns of adaptive specialization in plants.

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  • Landscape ecology continues to grow as an exciting, dynamic ecological discipline. With its broadscale emphasis and multidisciplinary approach, landscape ecology lends itself both to basic research and to applications in land management, land-use planning, wildlife management, ecosystem management, and conservation biology.

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  • The science of ecology and the practice of management are critical to our understanding of the Earth’s ecosystems and our efforts to conserve them. This book attempts to bridge the gap between ecology and natural resource management and, in particular, focuses on the discipline of plant ecology as a foundation for vegetation and wildlife management. It describes how concepts and approaches used by ecologists to study communities and ecosystems can be applied to their management. Guy R.

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  • Forests play a major role in global carbon (C) cycle, and the carbon density (CD) could reflect its ecological function of C sequestration. Study on the CD of different forest types on a community scale is crucial to characterize in depth the capacity of forest C sequestration.

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  • The third edition of The Fungal Community has been compiled by a new set of editors. The three of us were impressed with the quality and content of the previous two editions and hope that we have matched the work of George Carroll and Don Wicklow in this new volume. The aims and objectives of this volume are explained in our introductory chapter, but in brief, we have tried to address some of the current discussions in ecology (diversity and function, scaling issues, disturbance, invasive species) from a fungal perspective.

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  • The long-term approach to achieving protection is “ecological separation.” A true ecological separation is defined as no inter-basin transfer of aquatic organisms via the Chicago Waterway System at any time – 100% effectiveness. Ecological separation prohibits the movement or interbasin transfer of aquatic organisms between the Mississippi and Great Lakes basins via the CWS. Once established, the impacts of invasive species on ecosystem health are permanent and irreversible.

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  • Part One HUMANS, NATURE, AND INTERACTIONS All organisms live in ecological communities just as all people live in human communities. Often, however, we tend to forget that human communities also exist within an ecological context—that we cannot survive without the natural world around us.

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  • Our goal in writing this book was to describe why weeds occur where they do. We have made no attempt to discuss their management and control: there are excellent texts available for that. Rather, we think that students should understand how and why weeds fit into their environment. This text presents ecological principles as they relate to weeds. Ecology is central to our understanding of how and why weeds invade and yet there are few books that make this connection. That is the niche we hope to fill.

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  • From before the time Raven stole the sun and shed light on the world below, the Gitxaal / a people have lived in their territories along the north coast of British Columbia. Gitxaal / a laws (Ayaawk) and history (Adaawk) describe in precise detail the relationships of trust, honor, and respect that are appro- priate for the well-being and continuance of the people and, as important- ly, define the rights of ownership over land, sea, and resources within the territory.

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  • Island biogeography is an important subject for several reasons. First, it has been and remains a field which feeds ideas, theories, models, and tests of same into ecology, evolutionary biology, and biogeography. This is because islands provide natural scientists with model systems—replicated and simplified contexts—allowing us to isolate particular factors and processes and to explore their effects.

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  • In this edited volume, global experts in ecology and evolutionary biology explore how theories in ecology elucidate the processes of invasion, while also examining how specific invasions inform ecological theory. This reciprocal benefit is highlighted in a number of scales of organization: population, community and biogeographic. The text describes example invaders in all major groups of organisms and from a number of regions around the globe.

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  • In writing a volume of this kind, one becomes keenly aware that science is indeed a community of scholars. We stand on the shoulders of giants, and mistake the broadened vision for our own. In this instance the giants are Kurt Lewin, George Herbert Mead, Sigmund Freud, William I. and Dorothy S. Thomas, Edward C. Tolman, Lev Vygotsky, Kurt Goldstein, Otto Rank, Jean Piaget, and Ronald A. Fisher. ·From these I learned mainly by reading. There are others who struggled to teach me, often against resistance. Chief among them were my first teachers in psychology, Frank S. Freeman, Robert M.

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  • Question 1: What is human ecology? Please, draw a diagram showing relationship between Ecosystem and Social system? What are benefits for Economics to study Human Ecology? - Ecology is the science of relationships between living organisms and their environment. - Human ecology is about relationships between people and their environment. In human ecology the environment is perceived as an ecosystem - An ecosystem is everything in a specified area - the air, soil, water, living organisms and physical structures, including everything built by humans.

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  • IN RECENT YEARS it has become impossible to talk about man's relation to nature without referring to "ecology." This peculiar field of study has been suddenly called on, in a manner unusual even in our scienceimpressed age, to playa central intellectual role. Such leading scientists in this area as Rachel Carson, Barry Commoner, Eugene Odum, Paul Ehrlich, and others, have become our new delphic voices, writing bestsellers, appearing in the media, shaping government policies, even serving as moral touchstones.

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  • In this chapter, you should be able to: Distinguish among the following types of ecology: organismal, population, community, ecosystem, and landscape; explain how dispersal may contribute to a species’ distribution; distinguish between the following pairs of terms: biotic and abiotic factors, macroclimate and microclimate patterns.

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