Ecological data

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  • This textbook provides study materials for the participants of the course named Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data that we teach at our university for the third year. Material provided here should serve both for the introductory and the advanced versions of the course. We admit that some parts of the text would profit from further polishing, they are quite rough but we hope in further improvement of this text.

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  • Forests play a major role in global carbon (C) cycle, and the carbon density (CD) could reflect its ecological function of C sequestration. Study on the CD of different forest types on a community scale is crucial to characterize in depth the capacity of forest C sequestration.

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  • The theory and practice of molecular ecology draw on a number of subjects, particularly genetics, ecology and evolutionary biology. Although the foundations of molecular ecology are not particularly new, it did not emerge until the 1980s as the discipline that we now recognize. Since that time the growth of molecular ecology has been explosive, in part because molecular data are becoming increasingly accessible and also because it is, by its very nature, a collaborative discipline.

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  • At the risk of merely adding to the bloated and growing literature available on the disciplines of ecology and management while making little meritorious contribution to either, this book attempts to bridge the gap between these literatures and disciplines. As with most books, there are few data and concepts in this text that have not been recorded previously. However, ecology and management have not always been explicitly linked, although each discipline can benefit from the other.

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  • This book benefited tremendously from the input, support, and feedback of many people, and we greatly appreciate their time and efforts. Armando Carbonell of the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy suggested that we write the book, secured support from the Lincoln Institute, and was deeply helpful at every stage of the book’s development. Ann LeRoyer and Lisa Cloutier of the Lincoln Institute provided thoughtful suggestions and were especially helpful in bringing the book to fruition.

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  • Information gathered from the remaining intact tropical habitats might seem to deserve special treatment, for such data can be thought to represent precise, finely tuned biological interrelationships. Their evolutionary reason for existence might be revealed simply in their current ecology. Tropical data in general are often deemed more significant than comparable data taken in other habitats. Like the first-mentioned bias, this belief can encourage creative speculation, but sometimes it diminishes the accuracy with which the actual setting of a field study is examined or described....

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  • Beginning with modest initial attempts in roughly the 1960s, digital image processing has become a recognized field of science, as well as a broadly accepted methodology, to solve practical problems in many different kinds of human activities. The applications encompass an enormous range, starting perhaps with astronomy, geology, and physics, via medical, biological, and ecological imaging and technological exploitation, up to the initially unexpected use in humane sciences, e.g., archaeology or art history.

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  • The EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) is probably the most significant legislative instrument in the water field that was introduced on an international basis for many years. It moves towards integrated environmental management with key objectives to prevent any further deterioration of water bodies, and protect and enhance the status of aquatic ecosystems and associated wetlands. It aims to promote sustainable water consumption and will contribute to mitigating the effects of floods and droughts.

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  • 8 Molecular Ecology in a Wider Context Applications of Molecular Ecology By this stage in the book it should be evident that the acquisition and analysis of molecular data over the past two or three decades has provided us with considerable insight into the ecology of wild.

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  • 3 Genetic Analysis of Single Populations Why Study Single Populations? Now that we know how molecular markers can provide us with an almost endless supply of genetic data, we need to know how these data can be used to address specific ecological questions.

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  • Chapter 2 A Critical Review of the Effects of Marking on the Biology of Vertebrates Vertebrates often are marked to facilitate identification of free-ranging individual animals or groups for studies of behavior, population biology, and physiology. Marked animals provided data for many of the topics discussed in this volume.

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  • Chapter 9 Population Viability Analysis: Data Requirements and Essential Analyses The biological diversity of the earth is threatened by the burgeoning human population. To prevent extinctions of species, conservationists must manage many populations in isolated habitat parcels that are smaller than desirable.

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  • ASRM and the College of American Pathologists administer a reproductive laboratory accreditation program for embryology labs to assure that they conform to high national standards of quality. ASRM also produces ethics and practice guidelines. Its affiliate, the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART), strictly monitors member clinics for adherence to ASRM guidelines, accreditation of their embryology labs, qualification of their staff, and submission of data to the CDC.

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  • As a premise to this textbook on Numerical ecology, the authors wish to state their opinion concerning the role of data analysis in ecology. In the above quotation, Goethe cautioned readers against the use of mathematics in the natural sciences. In his opinion, mathematics may obscure, under an often esoteric language, the natural phenomena that scientists are trying to elucidate. Unfortunately, there are many examples in the ecological literature where the use of mathematics unintentionally lent support to Goethe’s thesis.

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  • According to a recent view of culture as a dynamic process (Miller 1995; Shaw and Clarke 1998), cultural differences often cause differences in consumer behavior within and across national borders. Referring to the identification of consumer segments across countries, macro-level geographic, political, economic, and cultural data have been typically used (e.g., Helsen et al. 1993; Kale 1995). In fact, to identify market segments, national borders and the study of culture are appropriate as segmentation criteria when consumer behavior is "culture bound" (e.g.

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  • The Earth’s polar regions (see Figure 1.1) are ecologically, economically, and, increasingly, geopolitically important; they are particularly vulnerable to the speed and magnitude of climate change and have significant potential to influence the global climate system (Oreskes, 2004; IPCC, 2007a; Anderegg et al., 2010). Climate models and observational data have shown that polar regions have warmed at substantially higher rates than the global mean (IPCC, 2007c).

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  • Malcolm Hill is an Assistant Professor of Biology at Fairfield University where he teaches General Biology and Evolution (both for majors). He also teaches an evolution course for non-majors. His research focuses on the evolutionary ecology of marine sponges. April Hill is an Assistant Professor of Biology at Fairfield University where she teaches Genetics and Developmental Biology. She is an active proponent of incorporating information technology in her lectures.

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  • A number of recent studies have used GIS analysis to measure the ecological factors contributing to the provision of certain services (Naidoo and Ricketts 2006; Beier, Patterson et al. 2008; Nelson, Mendoza et al. 2009). These studies explore how the provision of ecosystem services varies across the landscape. However, far fewer studies have explicitly identified the demand side, or human beneficiaries (Hein et al. 2006) or mapped these beneficiaries (Beier et al. 2008). Yet the need for such mapping is becoming increasingly recognized (Naidoo, Balmford et al. 2008).

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: The attrition rate of licensed chiropractors in California: an exploratory ecological investigation of time-trend data...

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  • Computers are used in every part of science from ecology to particle physics. This introduction to computer science continually reinforces those ties by using real-world science problems as examples. Anyone who has taken a high school science class will be able to follow along as the book introduces the basics of programming, then goes on to show readers how to work with databases, download data from the web automatically, build graphical interfaces, and most importantly, how to think like a professional programmer...

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