Ecological genetics

Xem 1-20 trên 31 kết quả Ecological genetics
  • Tham khảo sách 'aquarium plants: their identification, cultivation and ecology', khoa học tự nhiên, công nghệ sinh học phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Since the 1930s, the USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) Forest Service’s International Institute of Tropical Forestry (the Institute) has studied mahogany and its management. In the 1960s, F.B. Lamb, the author of the classic book on mahogany (1966), was an Institute collaborator. Before gene flow and genetic erosion became popular terms, my predecessor Frank Wadsworth established a gene bank at the Luquillo Experimental Forest.

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  • The epidemiology of infectious diseases is one of the great triumphs of applied ecology. In particular, the public health importance of parasites has lead to a large literature, exploring their impact on the population dynamics, population genetics and evolutionary biology of human populations. An important milestone was the Dahlem Conference on population biology of infectious diseases, held in 1981. The resulting book (Anderson and May 1982) lucidly summarised the contemporary state of parasite ecology and epidemiology.

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  • The theory and practice of molecular ecology draw on a number of subjects, particularly genetics, ecology and evolutionary biology. Although the foundations of molecular ecology are not particularly new, it did not emerge until the 1980s as the discipline that we now recognize. Since that time the growth of molecular ecology has been explosive, in part because molecular data are becoming increasingly accessible and also because it is, by its very nature, a collaborative discipline.

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  • France holds a rather unusual position in the field of evolutionary biology. Whereas French naturalists from Buffon, Cuvier and Lamarck onwards made great discoveries in centuries past, French biologists missed the turning when it came to genetics. Until the 1970s, most French biologists were convinced that genetics was not as interesting as developmental science (some "rare species", for example R. Chandebois, still hold this view). For them, the general principles of heredity resided in the cytoplasm rather than in the genome.

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  • Compared to other ecosystems, wetlands have received an exceptional amount of attention. Wetlands are valuable as sources, sink and transformers of a multitude of chemical, biological and genetic materials. They stabilize water supplies, clean polluted waters, protect shorelines, and recharge groundwater aquifers. They have increasingly become recognized for their unique ecological functions in the environment and are the focus of increased research by scientists and study programs by schools, communities, and nature centers.

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  • The theoretical metrics developed, such as genetic variance and heritability (Fisher, 1930; Wright, 1931), provided the quantitative standards necessary for the evolutionary synthesis. Further research has focused on the origin of genetic diversity, its maintenance and its role in evolution. Simple questions such as “who breeds with whom” initiated studies on the relatedness of populations.

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  • 4 Genetic Analysis of Multiple Populations Why Study Multiple Populations? In Chapter 3 we learned that by quantifying the genetic diversity of single populations we can gain considerable insight into processes as varied as bottlenecks, reproduction and natural selection.

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  • (BQ) Ebook Biochemistry of Plant Secondary Metabolism is designed for use by advanced students, researchers and profes-sionals in plant biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, genetics, agricul-ture and pharmacy working in the academic and industrial sectors, including the pesticide and pharmaceutical industries.

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  • The Fuzzy Set Theory developed by L. Zadeh (Zadeh 1965) as a possible way to handle uncertainty is particularly useful for the representation of vague expert knowledge and processing uncertain or imprecise information. The Fuzzy Set Theory is based on an extension of the classical meaning of the term "set" and formulates specific logical and arithmetical operations for processing information defined in the form of fuzzy sets and fuzzy rules.

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  • 1 Molecular Genetics in Ecology What is Molecular Ecology? Over the past 20 years, molecular biology has revolutionized ecological research. During that time, methods for genetically characterizing individuals, populations and species have become almost routine, and have provided us with a wealth

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  • 2 Molecular Markers in Ecology Understanding Molecular Markers In Chapter 1 we started to look at the extraordinary wealth of genetic information that is present in every individual, and to explore how some of this information can be accessed and used in ecological studies.

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  • 3 Genetic Analysis of Single Populations Why Study Single Populations? Now that we know how molecular markers can provide us with an almost endless supply of genetic data, we need to know how these data can be used to address specific ecological questions.

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  • 7 Conservation Genetics The Need for Conservation Biodiversity quite simply refers to all of the different life forms on our planet, and includes both species diversity and genetic diversity. There are many reasons why we value biodiversity, the most pragmatic being that ecosystems.

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  • This is because IT uses primers based on allele sequences of functionally characterized genes, and thus specific banding patterns corresponding to plant phenotypes can be identified (Cernák, 2008; Cernák et al., 2008; Gizaw, 2011). However, development of such markers depends on the availability of robust genomic databases holding several target sequences for IT marker development. Functional gene characterization criteria might be limiting factors, since it is not possible to establish gene functions in a molecular ecological sense for all genes.

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  • Yes, but the eye of the beholder is notoriously subjective, hopelessly narrow in its capacities for vision. One has only to consult smell or taste, for example, to realize that much more is going on than the eye can see. Science, by extending so greatly human capacities for perception, and by integrating these into theory, teaches us what is objectively there. We realize what is going on in the dark, underground, or over time. Without science, there is no sense of deep time, nor of geological or evolutionary history, and little appreciation of ecology.

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  • This should be a puzzle. Much of the rationale for development economics as a specialization is the thought that poor countries suffer particularly frominstitutional failures.But institutional failures in greatmeasuremanifest themselves as externalities. To ignore population growth and ecological constraints in the study of poor countries would be to suppose that demographic decisions and resource-use there give rise to no externalities of significance, and that externalities arising from institutional failure have a negligible effect on resource-use and demographic behaviour.

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  • Evolutionary biology and ecology share the goals of describing variation in natural systems and discovering its functional basis. Within this common framework, evolutionary biologists emphasize historical and lineage-dependent processes and hence often incorporate phylogenetic reconstructions and genetic models in their analyses. Ecologists, while cognizant of historical processes, tend to explain variation in terms of the contemporary effects of biotic and abiotic environmental factors.

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  • Unfortunately many people do not value their health until they lose it. It can be reasoned however that if people can understand and appreciate better the basis of human value systems they could be more likely to reappraise their values and thereby encouraged to address aspects of life and living which have more intrinsic and sustainable or ‘real’ value for them.

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