Ecological questions

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  • The real work in ecological research is done by graduate students, and the Caw Ridge study was no exception. We are thankful to have had so many enthusiastic and resourceful graduate students, the secret weapon of this research program. Many have gone on to successful careers in wildlife conservation or research, and we are proud of their achievements.

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  • What is the nature of Nature? Is it harmonious and graceful? Is it divine and providential? Is it cruel and wild? These days, answers to the question 'What is the nature of Nature?' often reverberate with claims of natural unity: every living thing in nature, and this includes humanity, is united. The unity of nature idea appears in many different forms; in the speeches of environmentally conscious politicians, in the academic writings of scientists, in the sermons of theological leaders, and in the slogans of social activists.

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  • 3 Genetic Analysis of Single Populations Why Study Single Populations? Now that we know how molecular markers can provide us with an almost endless supply of genetic data, we need to know how these data can be used to address specific ecological questions.

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  • Why consider the role of place in Milton’s poetry? A few years ago, while attending a seminar conducted by Diane McColley on the relation of nature to culture in the literary history of the natural world, I found myself returning again and again to the same question: what happens when culture is privileged over place? No mere academic question, as the last acres of the place my family had farmed for generations had given way to bulldozers the year before, I found myself feeling that I had somehow lost my place in the world....

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  • Environmentalists are often regarded as people wanting to stop one thing or another, and there are surely lots of things that ought to be stopped. The essays in this book, however, have to do with beginnings. How, for example, do we advance a long-delayed solar revolution? Or begin one in forest management? Or materials use? How do we reimagine and remake the human presence on earth in ways that work over the long haul? Such questions are the heart of what theologian Thomas Berry (1999) calls “the Great Work” of our age....

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  • Environmentalists are often regarded as people wanting to stop one thing or another, and there are surely lots of things that ought to be stopped. The essays in this book, however, have to do with beginnings. How, for example, do we advance a long-delayed solar revolution? Or begin one in forest management? Or materials use? How do we reimagine and remake the human presence on earth in ways that work over the long haul? Such questions are the heart of what theologian Thomas Berry (1999) calls “the Great Work” of our age....

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  • This volume has two first authors because it is a result of very intensive teamwork between the two authors. We have had three brainstorm meetings, each of approximately one week’s duration. There have been numerous pingpong games (questions–answers–new proposals etc.) on the Internet. All the chapters have major contributions from both of us. We hope that the volume therefore demonstrates a synergistic effect, reflecting the positive teamwork that is behind the volume.

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  • Question 1: What is human ecology? Please, draw a diagram showing relationship between Ecosystem and Social system? What are benefits for Economics to study Human Ecology? - Ecology is the science of relationships between living organisms and their environment. - Human ecology is about relationships between people and their environment. In human ecology the environment is perceived as an ecosystem - An ecosystem is everything in a specified area - the air, soil, water, living organisms and physical structures, including everything built by humans.

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  • Caesar Kleberg created the Caesar Kleberg Foundation forWildlife Conservation in his will in 1946. He never knew what would become of it or what direction it would take, but what he believed was true, without question or discussion. His rationale for creating the Caesar Kleberg Foundation for Wildlife Conservation is best described by these words in his LastWill and Testament: “Because of the importance of wildlife and its beneficial effects on the health, habits, and character of the American people.”...

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  • According to the scheme for forests, the services are divided into five main categories: resources; ecological; biospheric; social; and amenities2. The resources category refers to all goods that may be obtained from forests (wood and non-wood); the ecological services are those related to protection of water, soil and health; the biospheric services are mainly climate regulation and biodiversity protection; while social and amenity services comprise of different types of recreational activities and the cultural importance of forests.

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  • Answers to Review Questions Chapter 1 1.1 Nucleotide insertion. This is a frameshift mutation. Following this mutation, all but the first triplet encode different amino acids. The functionality is changed and therefore mutation is unlikely to be neutral.

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  • Chapter 5 Investigating Food Habits of Terrestrial Vertebrates Why study food habits? Probably one of the most fundamental questions that ecologists attempt to answer is, “What resources does a particular species require to exist?” Indeed, the first principle among wildlife ecologists is to have a thorough understanding of the food.

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  • Mining wastes can cause significant ecological destruction. Often, solid mine wastes are dumped into streams, destroying habitat and causing siltation and heavy metal and other contamination. Even when such wastes are stored out of water channels, trace materials can leach into surface waters and infiltrate into local groundwater. Fine- grained tailings can wash into local waterways and degrade streams by covering and filling coarser-grained substrates.

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  • Discussing the implications of a paradigm change in science, Allen et al. (2001) said: “A paradigm change modifies protocols, vocabulary or tacit agreements not to ask certain questions” (p. 480). If we agree with this brilliant definition, and therefore if we accept that a scientific paradigm is “a tacit agreement not to ask certain questions,” the next step is to find out why certain questions are forbidden.

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  • The excavations conducted by the Greek Archæological Society at Athens from 1883 to 1889 have laid bare the entire surface of the Acropolis, and shed an unexpected light upon the early history of Attic art. Many questions which once seemed unanswerable are now definitively answered, and, on the other hand, many new questions have been raised.

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  • For portfolio managers the question if the rise in synchronization across national equity markets is driven by fundamentals, and therefore likely to be permanent, or if it is linked to the recent stock market bubble, and therefore temporary, is critical. This is because portfolio managers have traditionally followed a top-down approach, first choosing countries in which to invest and then selecting the best securities in each market.

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  • We wrote this book to share with other ecologists what we have learned about the structure and use of theory and its relationship to the myriad activities that constitute modern science. Our own quest was motivated by the sometimes unclear way in which the term “theory” is used in both scientifi c publications and informal discussions. We needed to fi nd out what theory was and how it was built. We also wanted to evaluate the varied and often contradictory claims made about what constitutes proper scientifi c practice.

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  • Practice Test C – Reading Question 1- 9 Around the year 1500, hunting people occupied the entire northern third of North America. They lived well from the animals with whom they shared these lands. Hunters of sea mammals had colonized the Arctic coasts of Canada and Greenland between four and five thousand years before. Land-hunting people had lived throughout much of the northern interior for at least 12,000 years. Northern North America is part of a larger circumpolar ecological domain that continues across the narrow Bering Strait into Siberia and northern Europe.

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  • The theoretical metrics developed, such as genetic variance and heritability (Fisher, 1930; Wright, 1931), provided the quantitative standards necessary for the evolutionary synthesis. Further research has focused on the origin of genetic diversity, its maintenance and its role in evolution. Simple questions such as “who breeds with whom” initiated studies on the relatedness of populations.

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  • This is because IT uses primers based on allele sequences of functionally characterized genes, and thus specific banding patterns corresponding to plant phenotypes can be identified (Cernák, 2008; Cernák et al., 2008; Gizaw, 2011). However, development of such markers depends on the availability of robust genomic databases holding several target sequences for IT marker development. Functional gene characterization criteria might be limiting factors, since it is not possible to establish gene functions in a molecular ecological sense for all genes.

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