Ecological role

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  • This book is intended to be a presentation of alkaloids from chemical, biological and ecological points of view. It is a text for chemists, biologists and ecologists alike. However, the intended audience of this work is not limited to scientists, teachers and other present and future specialists. In fact, I wrote this book because I felt the need for it as a university educator and as a scientific enthusiast on the subject.

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  • Because of its accessibility, the intertidal zone has offered excellent opportunities to study the adaptations of individual organisms and populations to their environment, and the factors controlling community composition. Early work on seashores concentrated on the problems of life in an environment characterized by steep gradients in physical conditions, but in more recent years, the focus of research on the fascinating shore ecosystems has been on understanding the processes controlling their productivity and dynamic functioning.

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  • Forests play a major role in global carbon (C) cycle, and the carbon density (CD) could reflect its ecological function of C sequestration. Study on the CD of different forest types on a community scale is crucial to characterize in depth the capacity of forest C sequestration.

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  • THOUGHTFUL OBSERVERS of global ecosystems cannot fail to see that we live in a world dominated by humans.We cannot stand apart from nature, and now nature as we know it cannot stand apart from us. Faced with dawning clarity about this new relationship, we are uncertain of what to do.

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  • This book, now in its third edition, began almost 25 years ago when Weed Ecology: Implications for Vegetation Management was published in 1984. That text concentrated on the need for farmers, foresters, rangeland managers, and the researchers who advised them to understand better the biology of weeds and the role people play in creating and maintaining weeds in agriculture and other production systems. We were assisted in that first effort by the writings of many early scientists, such as J. L. Harper, H. G. Baker, and E. J.

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  • The author wishes to express his sincere gratitude to the late Professor of Moscow State University, Academician T.S. Khachaturov, his former scientific adviser, whose work played a most important role in the formation of the main concept of the present book. In addition, the author is grateful to Professor David Zilberman of the University of California at Berkeley for ...

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  • Natural and social scientists face a great challenge in the coming decades: to understand the role that humans play in ecosystems, particularly urban ecosystems. Cities and urbanizing regions are complex coupled humannatural systems in which people are the dominant agents. As humans transform natural landscapes into highly human-dominated environments, they create a new set of ecological conditions by changing ecosystem processes and dynamics.

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  • Environmental pollution has played a critical role in human lives since the early history of the nomadic tribes. During the last millennium, industrial revolution, increased population growth and urbanization have been the major determinants in shaping our environmental quality. Initially primary air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and particulate matter were of concern. For example, the killer fog of London in 1952 resulted in significant numbers of human fatality leading to major air pollution control measures....

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  • Why consider the role of place in Milton’s poetry? A few years ago, while attending a seminar conducted by Diane McColley on the relation of nature to culture in the literary history of the natural world, I found myself returning again and again to the same question: what happens when culture is privileged over place? No mere academic question, as the last acres of the place my family had farmed for generations had given way to bulldozers the year before, I found myself feeling that I had somehow lost my place in the world....

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  • IN RECENT YEARS it has become impossible to talk about man's relation to nature without referring to "ecology." This peculiar field of study has been suddenly called on, in a manner unusual even in our scienceimpressed age, to playa central intellectual role. Such leading scientists in this area as Rachel Carson, Barry Commoner, Eugene Odum, Paul Ehrlich, and others, have become our new delphic voices, writing bestsellers, appearing in the media, shaping government policies, even serving as moral touchstones.

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  • The study of wetland plants has been of interest to botanists for many years, but the need to identify and understand these plants has expanded dramatically since the 1970s. At that time, ecologists began to make known the vital role that wetlands play in our landscapes. The image of wetlands has shifted from that of mosquito-ridden wastelands to natural areas of critical importance. Because the field of wetland ecology has expanded, so has the study of the plants that thrive there, and their role in ecosystem dynamics.

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  • The notion of environmental damage is a rather recent development in tort law on both a national and an international level. Constant degradation of environmental goods, such as air, water and wildlife, by emissions and old dumpsites and spectacular industrial accidents causing pollution created a new awareness by the public of the environment. National legislation and new international treaties show that tort liability is attributed an increasing role in the protection of the environment by decision-makers.

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  • Creating institutions to meet the challenge of sustainability is arguably the most important task confronting society; it is also dauntingly complex. Ecological, economic, and social elements all play a role, but despite ongoing efforts, researchers have yet to succeed in integrating the various disciplines in a way that gives adequate representation to the insights of each.Panarchy, a term devised to describe evolving hierarchical systems with multiple interrelated elements, offers an important new framework for understanding and resolving this dilemma.

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  • The theoretical metrics developed, such as genetic variance and heritability (Fisher, 1930; Wright, 1931), provided the quantitative standards necessary for the evolutionary synthesis. Further research has focused on the origin of genetic diversity, its maintenance and its role in evolution. Simple questions such as “who breeds with whom” initiated studies on the relatedness of populations.

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  • The third edition of The Fungal Community has been compiled by a new set of editors. The three of us were impressed with the quality and content of the previous two editions and hope that we have matched the work of George Carroll and Don Wicklow in this new volume. The aims and objectives of this volume are explained in our introductory chapter, but in brief, we have tried to address some of the current discussions in ecology (diversity and function, scaling issues, disturbance, invasive species) from a fungal perspective.

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  • 8 Economics and Ecological Engineering Economics plays an important role in any engineering field, primarily as an aid in making design decisions. There is always a need to find the least expensive way to solve a problem and, at the most basic level.

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  • Mangroves play an important role in coastal zones in many aspects e.g. extremely essential habitats for many species, coastlines protection from natural hazards, and so on. However, in Vietnam, like in other developing countries, these mangrove areas have been destroyed and encroached as a consequence of a poorly planned economic development. The study has been conducted in Phu Long - Gia Luan region, which have the largest mangrove area in the Cat Ba Archipelago Biosphere Reserve, Hai Phong City, Vietnam. The aims of the study are to investigate existing land...

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  • As a premise to this textbook on Numerical ecology, the authors wish to state their opinion concerning the role of data analysis in ecology. In the above quotation, Goethe cautioned readers against the use of mathematics in the natural sciences. In his opinion, mathematics may obscure, under an often esoteric language, the natural phenomena that scientists are trying to elucidate. Unfortunately, there are many examples in the ecological literature where the use of mathematics unintentionally lent support to Goethe’s thesis.

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  • Define ecological biochemistry. • Explain biochemical adaptation and the roles of secondary compounds. • Describe detoxification and the primary metabolic pathways in plants and animals. • Explain the key processes and factors involved in biotransformation & biodegradation. • Explain the concepts of sequestration, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification. • Contrast different forms of ecological biochemical interaction.

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  • Ongoing monitoring and good data are the cornerstones of effective efforts to improve water quality. Addressing water quality challenges will mean building capacity and expertise in developing countries and deploying real-time, low-cost, rapid, and reliable field sampling tools, technologies, and data-sharing and management institutions. Resources are needed to build national and regional capacity to collect, manage, and analyze water quality data.

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