Scale is a unifying concept that cuts across all natural and social sciences. At the
same time, scaling is a common challenge in both basic and applied research.
Accordingly, scale and scaling have become two of the most widely used buzzwords
in ecology today. Over the past two decades, more than a dozen books and many
more journal papers have been published on the problems of scale and scaling in
ecology and geophysical sciences. These publications, as reviewed in the chapters of
this book, have contributed significantly to our current understanding of scale issues.
Research in tropical forestry is confronted with the task of finding strategies to alleviate pressure on remaining forests, and techniques to enhance forest regeneration and restore abandoned lands, using productive alternatives that can be attractive to local human populations. In addition, sustainable forestry in tropical countries must be supported by adequate policies to promote and maintain specific activities at local and regional scales.
Whereas the mechanical performance of plant organs has often been discussed in
evolutionary biology [1,2], tree biomechanics has rarely been considered in the
context of functional ecology. Functional ecology aims at understanding the functions
of organisms that result in fluxes of biomass or energy within an ecosystem,
a forest. This discipline studies the processes controlling these fluxes, at either
the scale of an individual, community, or ecosystem, with their response to natural
or anthropic environmental variations....
My start with ecological risk assessment at the regional scale began with the
evaluation of risks within the fjord of Port Valdez, Alaska. I initially thought that
the process was going to be very straightforward. The USEPA had produced a
framework document and there were published case studies.
Forests play a major role in global carbon
(C) cycle, and the carbon density (CD) could reflect
its ecological function of C sequestration. Study on
the CD of different forest types on a community scale
is crucial to characterize in depth the capacity of
forest C sequestration.
Landscape ecology continues to grow as an exciting, dynamic ecological discipline.
With its broadscale emphasis and multidisciplinary approach, landscape
ecology lends itself both to basic research and to applications in land
management, land-use planning, wildlife management, ecosystem management,
and conservation biology.
The world’s climate is changing, and it will continue to change throughout the 21st century and beyond. Rising temperatures, new precipitation patterns, and other changes are already affecting many aspects of human society and the natural world. Climate change is transforming ecosystems at extraordinary rates and scales.
Aquatic scientists have always been intrigued with concepts of scale. This interest perhaps stems from
the nature of ßuid dynamics in oceans and lakes energy cascades from spatial scales of kilometers
down to viscous scales at centimeters or less. Turbulent processes affect not only an organisms perception
of, and response to, the physical environment, but also the interaction between species, both within and
across trophic levels.
More than ten years ago, two of us (AGH and DGR) were lucky enough to edit a
previous symposium of the British Ecological Society (BES) – Aquatic Ecology: Scale,
Pattern and Process (Giller, Hildrew & Raffaelli, 1994). In the Introduction to that
volume, we pointed out that the BES had not devoted a single previous symposium
to aquatic ecosystems.
robably the best introduction to our book is the conclusion of another
book. The other book is Something New Under the Sunby historian J. R.
McNeill argues that the Preacher in Ecclesiastes remains mostly
but not completely right—there is indeed “nothing new under the sun” in
the realm of vanity and wickedness. But the place of humankind within the
natural world is not what it was. The enormity and devastating impact of the
human scale on the rest of creation really is a new thing under the sun. And
it greatly amplifies the consequences of vanity and wickedness.
Even though human-induced species extinction presently seems to rank
low on peoples’ attention scale compared to other political and societal
topics, this does not mean that its significance in earth history or its ecological
consequences have diminished in any way. It must repeatedly be
made clear that if current trends continue, within the next one hundred
years half of all our planet’s species will most likely have become extinct.
The 8th International Congress of Ecology was held in Seoul, South Korea in
August 2002, and was hosted by the Ecological Society of Korea. The Congress
theme was 'Ecological Issues in a Changing World', and this volume includes
selected contributions to illustrate some of the important topics which were
discussed during the Congress.
Problems of scale have exercised the minds of ecologists for many years, and
will continue to do so into the future. This volume deals with this subject and with
mathematical approaches to improve our understanding of complex ecological
Landscape ecology has emerged in the past decade as an important and useful tool for land-use planners and landscape architects. While professionals and scholars have begun to incorporate aspects of this new field into their work, there remains a need for a summary of key principles and how they might be applied in design and planning.This volume fills that need. It is a concise handbook that lists and illustrates key principles in the field, presenting specific examples of how the principles can be applied in a range of scales and diverse types of landscapes around the world....
There are 4 million miles of roads in the United States. One hundred
years ago, roads were primarily unpaved and had half the number of
miles of the present U.S. road system. As the system grew, roads became
wider and more complex structurally to provide for more and heavier
traffic. New construction technology and greater structural stability
were needed to improve the road system.
All phases of road development—from construction and use by vehicles
to maintenance—affect physical and chemical soil conditions, water
flow, and air and water quality.
In this edited volume, global experts in ecology and evolutionary biology explore how theories in ecology elucidate the processes of invasion, while also examining how specific invasions inform ecological theory. This reciprocal benefit is highlighted in a number of scales of organization: population, community and biogeographic. The text describes example invaders in all major groups of organisms and from a number of regions around the globe.
The “origin of this species” lies in the pages of the journal Biometrika and precedes
the birth of either of the authors. There, in his remarkable landmark 1951 paper “Random
dispersal in theoretical populations,” J.G. Skellam made a number of observations that have
profoundly affected the study of spatial ecology.
Since the 1930s, the USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) Forest
Service’s International Institute of Tropical Forestry (the Institute) has
studied mahogany and its management. In the 1960s, F.B. Lamb, the author
of the classic book on mahogany (1966), was an Institute collaborator.
Before gene flow and genetic erosion became popular terms, my predecessor
Frank Wadsworth established a gene bank at the Luquillo Experimental
Phong cảnh và Edge Tác dụng trên Dynamics Dân số: Phương pháp tiếp cận và Ví dụ
Giới thiệu Metapopulations Các loại Dynamics phân phối hiệu ứng không gian của Habitat gạch nối giữa Dân số hiệu ứng hành vi Töông cộng đồng tại Edges hiệu ứng khác nhau bổ cảnh quan không gian Scales hoặc bổ sung hiệu ứng Khoảng cách ngắn ảnh hưởng cảnh quan quy mô thật Cân không gian lớn hơn Một số khái quát hạn chế tiến hóa và tính không đồng nhất Bối cảnh lịch sử hoặc Sinh Thái ...
Recent revisions to the early Paleozoic time scale have been used to recalibrate ages assigned to stratigraphically dated paleomagnetic poles of that era. In particular, a value of 545 Ma has been used for the base of the Cambrian. Selected poles have then been used to derive apparent polar.