Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Comprehending the gifts of ecology Stress ecology, climate change, human well-being, and global
This book is an introduction to the exciting new
field of ecological genomics, for use in MSc courses
and by those beginning their PhD studies.
When we became involved in a national research
programme on ecological genomics, or ecogenomics
as it became known, we realized that information
on this newly emerging subject needed to be
brought together. In order to start up a research
programme in such a new discipline, not only the
students, but also we as teachers, had to get to grips
with the subject.
Does this mean that differences in genetic diversity levels will have predictable
ecological consequences? The answer is no, because only one portion of genetic diversity is
connected to ecological factors, i.e. adaptation. Ecological adaptation is a significant factor
for example, in range expansion of plant species. Plants with different genotypes conferring
the highest levels of fitness are expected to survive and reproduce better, shifting the gene
pool over time towards higher frequencies of the alleles making up the more successful
genotypes (Ward et al., 2008).
These related changes have locked the global economy and global ecology together in new
ways. We have in the past been concerned about the impacts of economic growth upon the
environment. We are now forced to concern ourselves with the impacts of ecological stress -
degradation of soils, water regimes, atmosphere, and forests upon our economic prospects.
We have in the more recent past been forced to face up to a sharp increase in economic
interdependence among nations. We are now forced to accustom ourselves to an accelerating
ecological interdependence among nations.
engineered solutions often work against nature, particularly when they aim to constrain regular
ecological cycles, such as annual river flooding and coastal erosion, and could further threaten
ecosystem services if creation of dams, sea walls, and flood canals leads to habitat loss.
But then again—Leopold checks himself—science is no guarantee that one
will see what is there either. 'Let no man jump to the conclusion that Babbitt
must take his Ph.D. in ecology before he can "see" his own country. On the
contrary, the Ph.D. may become as callous as an undertaker at the mysteries
at which he officiates. . . . Perception, in short, cannot be purchased with
either learned degrees or dollars; it grows at home as well as abroad.' The
essential perception is of 'the natural processes by which the land and the
living things upon it have achieved...
An extensive body of research suggests that psychological assets do confer resilience and protection
and do so at both an individual and an ecological level (Bartley 2006; Fagg et al 2006; Sacker and
Schoon 2007). The optimism, self esteem, self efficacy and interest in others that contribute to a
child’s success at school are also characteristics of resilient neighbourhoods and communities, where
norms of trust, tolerance, support, participation and reciprocity may provide some protection from
the effects of deprivation.
Nowadays, environmental issues including air and water pollution, climate
change, overexploitation of marine ecosystems, exhaustion of fossil resources,
conservation of biodiversity are receiving major attention from the public,
stakeholders and scholars from the local to the planetary scales. It is now
clearly recognized that human activities yield major ecological and environ-
mental stresses with irreversible loss of species, destruction of habitat or cli-
mate catastrophes as the most dramatic examples of their eﬀects.