It is intended that this book be suitable for a variety of engineers and ecologists, who
may wish to gain an introduction to the rapidly growing field of ecological and
environmental modelling. An understanding of the fundamentals of environmental
problems and ecology, as presented for instance in the textbook Principles of
Environmental Science and Technology is assumed. Furthermore, it is assumed that
the reader has either a fundamental knowledge of differential equations and matrix
calculations or has read the Appendix, which gives a brief introduction to these
Diversity of plant form and life history and their distribution onto different habitats suggest
that plant functions should underlie this diversity, providing tools to successfully and differentially
thrive in every habitat. The knowledge of these functions is then the key to understand
community and ecosystem structure and functioning, something that attracted the
interest and effort of many plant ecologists trying to establish patterns of adaptive specialization
Landscape ecology has emerged in the past decade as an important and useful tool for land-use planners and landscape architects. While professionals and scholars have begun to incorporate aspects of this new field into their work, there remains a need for a summary of key principles and how they might be applied in design and planning.This volume fills that need. It is a concise handbook that lists and illustrates key principles in the field, presenting specific examples of how the principles can be applied in a range of scales and diverse types of landscapes around the world....
This book covers multiple topics of Ergonomics following a systems approach, analysing the relationships between workers and their work environment from different but complementary standpoints. The chapters focused on Physical Ergonomics address the topics upper and lower limbs as well as low back musculoskeletal disorders and some methodologies and tools that can be used to tackle them.
Microecosystems or microcosms are relatively small, closed or semi-closed ecosystems used primarily for experimental purposes. As such, they are living tools used by scientists to understand nature.
This second edition provides an updated and expanded synthesis of feedbacks and interactions between insects and their environment. A number of recent studies have advanced understanding of feedbacks or provided useful examples of principles. Molecular methods have provided new tools for addressing dispersal and interactions among organisms and have clarified mechanisms of feedback between insect effects.
Meaning, nature and scope of environmental economics; Environmental concerns- concept of
environmental degradation, estimation of economic losses due to environmental degradation and
adjustment measures, comparative advantage/disadvantage of alternative technologies on
environment and sustainability, environmental policy analysis. Agricultural development and its
effect on ecology and environment; Elements of environmental degradation in agriculture-Sub-optimal
land use practices like.
This course covers geologic and engineering concepts, methodology, and technology used to characterize, evaluate and manage naturally-fractured reservoirs. Applications and limitations of geologic and engineering procedures and tools are discussed. Field examples and case studies demonstrate the importance of integrated geologic and engineering studies in developing effective, economical reservoir management strategies for different types of reservoirs.
Time-driven systems such as living organisms, ecological systems and world population have
long been modeled and analyzed through differential equations. Man-made technological
environments such as computer, transportation and telecommunication networks or
manufacturing and logistics systems represent systems whose behaviors are governed by events
occurring asynchronously over time.
The idea of restoration is not new. Life, as it happens, is full of accidents,
mishaps, and untoward events, from breaking a tool to growing old and dying,
and the desire to avoid the consequences of these events by reversing
or undoing them in order to return to some happier previous or “original”
condition seems to be as old as our species. It is the root aspiration behind
religion, that oldest of human institutions. It is also a constant theme of
both public and private life, and it may even be grounded in the capacity
for self-repair that is a peculiarity of life itself....
As a human-generated and worldwide process, global climate change is a qual-
itatively distinct and very signiﬁcant addition to the spectrum of environmental
health hazards encountered by humankind. Historically, environmental health
concerns have focused on toxicological or microbiological risks to health from
local exposures. However, the scale of environmental health problems is increas-
ing and various larger-scale environmental hazards to human population health
have begun to appear.
This book provides an interdisciplinary view of how to prepare the ecological and socio-economic systems to the reality of climate change. Scientifically sound tools are needed to predict its effects on regional, rather than global, scales, as it is the level at which socio-economic plans are designed and natural ecosystem reacts. The first section of this book describes a series of methods and models to downscale the global predictions of climate change, estimate its effects on biophysical systems and monitor the changes as they occur....
Environmental Land Use Planning brings together leading scholars in the field of environmental problem solving to examine environmental problems and effects on land uses; analytical methods and tools in the field; and the role of governments, community grants and tradable permits in environmental planning. The chapters are based on empirical research from countries around the globe including Canada, USA, China, Nigeria, Germany, Serbia, Venezuela, and Brazil.
This is probably the first study that has used resilience, the adaptive cycle and
panarchy as a major part of the conceptual foundation for the work. Resilience
(as used here) has been explored in the literature for about 30 years, the
adaptive cycle originated about 18 years ago and both have been integrated
within the panarchy concept for only a few years.
he goal is to provide tools for leaders to improve
both the environmental performance and overall competiveness by reducing
materials, energy and water utilization. Section 5 are papers related to sustainable
environment: all aspects of ecosystem for sustainable development, ecological
assessment and sustainability for the environment.
Development of Geospatial Ecological Indicators in Jiangxi Province, China
Peng Guo and Xiaoling Chen
Comprehensive evaluation of ecological environments is necessary for environmental sustainability and management planning, which can provide quantitative documents as scientific guides for informed decision making. The existence of several environmental impact assessment (EIA) methods makes it difficult to make on an appropriate choice (Sankoh 1996).
Ongoing monitoring and good data are the cornerstones of
effective efforts to improve water quality. Addressing water
quality challenges will mean building capacity and expertise
in developing countries and deploying real-time, low-cost,
rapid, and reliable field sampling tools, technologies, and
data-sharing and management institutions. Resources are
needed to build national and regional capacity to collect,
manage, and analyze water quality data.
Since the first production of tools at the beginning of human presence on Earth, human evolution is
linked to the invention of new tools, usually combined with new environmental adaptations.
The symbiosis of man with tools and environments represents one of the main factors in human
evolutionary processes. It is evident how this coupling is based on the biophysics of our bodies and the
development of the social memory system called culture.
Need for environmental protection: an economic overview; Elements of environmental protection-
sustainable agriculture and its dimensions-ecological, economic, technological, social and political;
Preservation of biological diversity. Integrated farming and organic farming; Institutional measures
and regulatory tools for environmental protection; Economic instruments for environmental
protection. Issues of food security and international irade in relation to environmental protection.