The ecology of ideas of which this book is a part started to emerge in
my head a long time ago. As time passed new ideas were added, some of
which fl ourished, while others were unable to secure a spot in the evolving
landscape. The particular combination of insights that forms the main
argument of this book started taking shape after 27 November 2004. On
that day our twin sons Daniel and Nestor were born. For quite some time
after that I spent a lot of time holding one of them asleep in my arms. The
only thing I could do in parallel was reading. So...
Restoration ecology is a subdiscipline of ecological engineering that has been growing out of the need and desire to add ecological value to ecosystems that have been degraded by human impacts.
Human activities may seriously affect the quality of aquatic ecosystems. Pathogen
organisms, nutrients, heavy metals, toxic elements, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and
various other organic micropollutants enter to aquatic environment through a range of
point and diffuse sources. The presence of these compounds has adverse impacts on
aquatic biota. It is well recognised that the distribution and the abundance of various
species in aquatic systems are directly related to the water quality and hydrological
Agroecology encompasses not only aspects of ecology and agriculture, but the
ecology of sustainable food production systems, including the technology and
related societal and cultural values (e.g. Gliessman 1998; Altieri and Hecht 1990;
Altieri 1989, 1987, 1983) to better promote healthy and functional environments for
a sustainable quality of life (see also Castillo et al. 2005). To provide effective com
munication regarding the status and advances in this burgeoning field, connections
must be established with many disciplines including (but not limited to)...
The importance of cyanobacterial toxins in drinking water sources has been highlighted
by the adoption of a provisional drinking water “Guideline Value” for microcystin-
LR, one of the most abundant toxins, by the World Health Organization
(WHO). A number of nations have now legislated a guideline for microcystins into
their drinking water regulations, with the consequent need for monitoring and analytical
techniques. The Chemical Safety Committee of the WHO also has under
consideration a Guideline Value for cylindrospermopsin, the other most damaging
Suppose we have a function f (x) where the variable x may be a vector of many
dimensions. We seek the point x∗ such that f (x∗) is the maximum value among
all possible f (x). This point x∗ is called the global optimum of the function f (x).
It is possible that x∗ is a unique point but it is also possible that there are several
points that share the maximal value f (x∗). Optimization is a field of mathematics
that concerns itself with finding the point x∗ given the function f (x).
The Need for Conservation
Biodiversity quite simply refers to all of the different life forms on our planet, and includes both species diversity and genetic diversity. There are many reasons why we value biodiversity, the most pragmatic being that ecosystems.
Recent revisions to the early Paleozoic time scale have been used to recalibrate ages assigned to stratigraphically dated paleomagnetic poles of that era. In particular, a value of 545 Ma has been used for the base of the Cambrian. Selected poles have then been used to derive apparent polar.
Large lakes are important because of their size and
ecological distinctiveness, as well as their economic and
cultural value. Optimal management of them requires a
proper understanding of anthropogenic impacts, both on
the lake ecosystems, as such and on the services they
provide for society. The specific structural and functional
properties of large lakes, e.g. morphology,
hydrography, biogeochemical cycles, and food-web
structure, are all directly related to their size.
The contemporary debate about the nature of human nature, centering
around the implications of Darwin’s theory of evolution, is the
newest chapter in a long history of explorations. Confl icting ideas about
human nature have always sat at the core of philosophical debates, often
educational ones. Plato and Aristotle, for example, had differing views on
human nature, and thus different approaches to educational philosophy.1
So too did Descartes, Hobbes, Locke, Hume and Rousseau
This volume details some of the latest advances in spectral theory and nonlinear analysis through various cutting-edge theories on algebraic multiplicities, global bifurcation theory, non-linear Schrodinger equations, non-linear boundary value problems, large solutions, metasolutions, dynamical systems, and applications to spatial ecology.
Ecologically, Ennore Creek is the most strategic
place where many industries started mushrooming in and
around the creek in the late 1970s led to meristamatic
growth affecting the fishing community (Arunagiri et al.,
1998). The environmental degradation of the Ennore
Creek is structurally different from the problem of
pollution of the metropolitan city of Chennai. This narrow
creek is one among the most polluted creeks along the
Eastern Coast, which is not only receiving worldwide
attention, but also one of the areas demanding intensive
Most available literature on cockroaches deals with domestic pests and the half dozen or
so other species that are easily and commonly kept in laboratories and museums. It reflects
the extensive efforts undertaken to find chinks in the armor of problematic cockroaches,
and the fact that certain species are ideal for physiological and behavioral investigations
under controlled conditions. These studies have been summarized in some
excellent books, including those by Guthrie and Tindall (1968), Cornwell (1968),Huber
et al. (1990), Bell and Adiyodi (1982a), and Rust et al. (1995).
The authors and contributors to this report acknowledge the Indigenous Traditional Owners of Country throughout Northern Australia, and their right to speak for Country.
The authors are recipients of an ARC Linkage Grant focused on investigating connectivity conservation issues in various regions, including Northern Australia. Some of the outcomes from that research were drawn upon for this report.
Knowing nature is a complex, multiple, and highly political process.
This is clearly illustrated by looking at the knowledge and management of a
piece of land, seemingly isolated but impacting and impacted by decision- making
processes, politics, and technology around the world.
A barren stretch of ground in the Sahelian region of West Africa holds diverse meanings
to different people and institutions. Livestock herders value it for its proximity to a
water point and for the grass it will grow once the rains come.
Volunteers Are a Valuable Financial Resource. A
volunteer’s time is an important resource for many charities
and congregations, especially those that do not have
the money to hire labor to carry out certain tasks. Volunteer
time is comparable to a monetary donation. Independent
Sector, a national advocate for the nonprofit sector,
computes annually an equivalent average hourly wage
for a volunteer’s time. The calculation is derived from
the average hourly wage of nonagricultural workers plus
12 percent for fringe benefits. By this calculation, the
typical 2002 volunteer value was $16.
An extensive body of research suggests that psychological assets do confer resilience and protection
and do so at both an individual and an ecological level (Bartley 2006; Fagg et al 2006; Sacker and
Schoon 2007). The optimism, self esteem, self efficacy and interest in others that contribute to a
child’s success at school are also characteristics of resilient neighbourhoods and communities, where
norms of trust, tolerance, support, participation and reciprocity may provide some protection from
the effects of deprivation.
Sea Lamprey Objectives
Reduce sea lamprey abundance to allow the achievement of other fish community objectives.
Obtain a 75% reduction in parasitic sea lampreys by the year 2000 and a 90% reduction by the
Species Diversity Objective
Recognize and protect the array of other indigenous fish species because they contribute to the
richness of the fish community. These fish – cyprinids, rare ciscoes, suckers, burbot, gar, and
sculpins- are important because of their ecological significance; intrinsic value; and social,
cultural, and economic benefits.
Although farmers do not receive any support from society for the contribution of the dehesa
to welfare of society and the environment, they still conserve, prune and reforest oaks to
maintain fruit production to feed and fatten Iberian pigs during the montanera or pannage.
The ability of the Iberian pig breed to feed on acorns is a key feature in maintaining the
Due to the growing importance of forest goods and services an increasing amount of information is
being collected on the ecological and also on the socio-economic value of goods and services
provided by forests. However, much of this information is collected and presented at incompatible
scales or it has been classified differently. In order to make comparative ecological or economic
analysis possible, standardized frameworks for assessing the importance of forest goods and services