Xem 1-13 trên 13 kết quả Economic actors
  • Economics - to the great dismay of economists - is merely a branch of psychology. It deals with individual behaviour and with mass behaviour. Many of its practitioners sought to disguise its nature as a social science by applying complex mathematics where common sense and direct experimentation would have yielded far better results. The outcome has been an embarrassing divorce between economic theory and its subjects. The economic actor is assumed to be constantly engaged in the rational pursuit of self interest. This is not a realistic model - merely a useful approximation.

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  • I take the ideas in these papers and their underlying sociological literatures quite seriously. In fact, one sociologist friend recently declared that I have an “economist’s eye for the sociological guy.” More precisely, my interest is in economic sociology, which I will define as the sociology of economic actors and institutions; see the two Handbooks of Economic Sociology by Smelser and Swedberg (1994, forthcoming) for volumes of detail.

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  • Chapter 1 - Introduction to labour market economics. After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: Main actors and roles, labour supply and demand, policy questions, characteristics of market, neoclassical and alternative approaches.

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  • American constitutional law, to paraphrase Charles Evans Hughes, is what the Supreme Court says it is. But of course it is much more than that. Constitutional law is constantly informed by numerous actors’ understandings of the meaning of the United States Constitution. Lawyers, judges, politicians, academicians, and, of course, citizens all contribute to the dialogue that produces constitutional law. Consequently, the Constitution remains a vital part of American public life, continuously woven into the fabric of our history, politics, and culture.

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  • The online adult industry is among the most profitable business branches on the Internet, and its web sites attract large amounts of visitors and traffic. Nevertheless, no study has yet characterized the industry’s economical and securityrelated structure. As cyber-criminals are motivated by financial incentives, a deeper understanding and identification of the economic actors and interdependencies in the online adult business is important for analyzing securityrelated aspects of this industry.

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  • This report is Part I of the larger project on Internet intermediaries. It develops a common definition and understanding of what Internet intermediaries are, of their economic function and economic models, of recent market developments, and discusses the economic and social uses that these actors satisfy. The overall goal of the horizontal report of the Committee for Information, Computer and Communications Policy (ICCP) is to obtain a comprehensive view of Internet intermediaries, their economic and social function, development and prospects, benefits and costs, and responsibilities.

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  • Through IDEI and the Jean-Jacques Laffont Foundation, economists from TSE have developed strong relationships with economic actors (regulators, public and private corporations and various other institutions). Since 1990, IDEI has built partnerships with companies in various sectors. This cooperation has initiated and inspired a great deal of original research. The creation of the Jean-Jacques Laffont Foundation has enhanced and extended partnerships that will guarantee additional financial support for continued research.

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  • The foundation for these medium- and long-term initiatives consists of: fostering innovation through promoting entrepreneurship, investing in smart infrastructure, encouraging R&D, green investment, upgrading the skills of workers, steering market actors towards innovation-related investments, and accelerating activities for which barriers may have been too high otherwise.

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  • In recent months, there has been a considerable effort by many political actors to promote fears over the size of public pension shortfalls. While many, if not most, public pensions do face shortfalls, much of the discussion has been misleading about both the origins of the shortfall and its severity. This paper tries to put these issues in a clearer perspective. The first part examines the origins of the shortfall by noting the extent to which pensions have lost value due to the recent economic crisis.

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  • Based on an exploratory, longitudinal, retrospective case study on the German energy utility E.ON, the study examines three related research questions. First, we ask if strategy formation as represented by corporate resource allocations is influenced by regulatory actors. Second, we explore how strategy formation is impacted in terms of internal alignments of corporate strategies and structures. And third, we elaborate on the corporation’s externally directed re- sponse strategies in order to reversely influence its environment.

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  • Given recent seismic upheavals in the world’s money markets, an updated edition of an authoritative, reliable textbook on the international law of foreign investment has rarely been so timely. Sornarajah’s classic text surveys how international law has developed to protect foreign investments by multinational actors and to control any misconduct on their part. It analyses treaty-based methods, examining the effectiveness of bilateral and regional investment treaties.

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  • Member States have anchored and reaffirmed their commitment to gender equality in several normative frameworks. 1 Yet, too many women have not been able to benefit from progress made in meeting the MDGs. Their rights are often not respected and they are left voiceless, excluded from social protection, access to services and economic opportunities. Women and girls continue to face gender-based discrimination and violence as internationally agreed commitments on women’s rights and the empowerment of women are not met in many countries.

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  • Historically, savings banks have been the first intermediaries to secure the savings and invest- ments of the local population, which they mobilised to reinvest and develop their surround- ing communities. Building on their decentralised network, their deep knowledge of the local needs, specificities and actors, they naturally grew as the privileged financial partner for local and regional economic projects. They have built business relationships with major actors of the local development and growth.

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