The purpose of the study was to analyze the current practice of shrimp farming in the north central Vietnam, to evaluate the status of agricultural production and economic conditions - social and environment, and determine the limit application of better management practices. The report presents the results of a survey of 90 shrimp farmers in north-central provinces of Vietnam (Ha Tinh, Nghe An and Thua Thien-Hue).
Shrimp production costs mainly by feeding (average 65% of total cost) for different varieties of food between provinces.
During the past 20 years, design and operation of the comfort systems for buildings have been transformed
because of energy conservation imperatives, the use of computer-based design aids, and major advances
in intelligent management systems for buildings. In the 1970s, rules of thumb were widely used by
designers. Today, a strong analytical basis for the design synthesis process is standard procedure. This
handbook describes the latest methods for design and operation of new and existing buildings.
"Under the right conditions and applications, evaporative air-conditioning (EAC) technologies can provide excellent cooling and ventilation with minimal energy consumption." Evaporative air-conditioning technologies are being used increasingly in residential and commercial applications worldwide. EAC technologies, which rely on water as a coolant rather than on chemical refrigerants, are economical to produce and use and have important environmental benefits.
Each Federal Reserve Bank gathers anecdotal information on current economic conditions in its District through reports from Bank and Branch directors and interviews with key businessmen, economists, market experts, and other sources. The Beige Book summarizes this information by District and sector.
Recently public attention has turned toward the intricate interrelation
between economic growth and global warming. This book focuses on
this nexus but broadens the framework to study this issue. Growth
is seen as global growth, which affects the global environment and
climate change. Global growth, in particular high economic growth
rates, implies a fast depletion of renewable and nonrenewable resources.
Thus the book deals with the impact of economic growth on the envi-
ronment and the effect of the exhaustive use of natural resources as
well as the reverse linkage.
Stock Markets, Banks, and Economic Growth Ross Levine; Sara Zervos The American Economic Review, Vol. 88, No. 3. (Jun., 1998), pp. 537-558.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8282%28199806%2988%3A3%3C537%3ASMBAEG%3E2.0.CO%3B2-9 The American Economic Review is currently published by American Economic Association.
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For the philosopher of history, G.W.F. Hegel, the fundamental challenge for any
student of societal evolution is to apprehend in thought the spirit of the age (or the
zeitgeist)—i.e., to understand the motive force of change while it is still at work
(Lauer, 1974). Catching the zeitgeist ‘in the act,’ so to speak, is a matter of practical
importance; for gaining such an understanding would seem to be a necessary,
if not sufficient, condition for successfully shaping ‘for the better’ any future state
of affairs. Hegel does not give us much cause for optimism here.
How population growth damages the quality of life and the environment Why immigration is not a ‘fix’ for an ageing population Why an ageing society is inevitable for the UK and the rest of the world Why health care will be affordable in an ageing society Why we should welcome an ageing society Why Europe’s low fertility is set to bounce back up Why there are no labour shortages in Europe or the UK How immigration can lead to worse pay and conditions for native workers
Essays on Economics of Education While it is possible that
parents use the demographic data in this way, it seems more likely that home buyers prefer
wealthier neighborhoods, even conditional on average student performance (Downes and
This book highlights methodological approaches for the economics of sustainable
development and brings together recent empirical work done in India, especially by
Dr. Surender Kumar and Dr. Shunsuke Managi. Various chapters in this book use
Indian data to show the very wide applicability of methodologies in the theory of
production for dealing with many empirical issues of environmentally sustainable
development in a developing country.
The whole purpose of this website and the products and services that I offer are to teach insurance professionals how to do online insurance lead generation for themselves as a way to end dependency upon the lead companies. I firmly believe that it's dependency on the lead companies that is killing the businesses of the vast majority... ... and that only those who learn how to leverage the internet for themselves will be successful moving into the future. Because insurance professionals have been conditioned into buying leads, one of the main questions I get on my surveys and in coaching...
International migrants from developing countries
are of both rural and urban origin (ratios vary from
country to country and change over time
according to socio-economic conditions in both
sending and receiving areas). However, we will
focus on the rural factors that motivate vast
sectors of the population to consider migration in
order to improve their lives and diversify their
sources of income. During the last 50 years,
800 million people have migrated from rural to
urban areas, and it is expected that these
migrations will continue to increase.
This report explores both the short- and medium-term impacts of the financial crisis on developing countries. It presents evidence that the financial boom played a critical role in the growth boom experienced by developing countries between 2003 and 2007, but that tighter conditions in the future are expected to result in weaker growth over the next 5 to 15 years. Although global growth has resumed, the recovery is fragile, and unless
Early care and education (ECE) is an important industry in California, serving more than 850,000
California children and their families and bringing in gross receipts of at least $5.6 billion annually.
The industry not only benefits the children who receive care, but also strengthens the California
economy as a whole, which is especially important during this time in which California is struggling
with high unemployment and a weak economic recovery. This paper discusses the range of
economic benefits that the ECE industry brings to California. ...
Climate change presents a unique challenge for economics: it is the greatest and
widest-ranging market failure ever seen. The economic analysis must therefore be
global, deal with long time horizons, have the economics of risk and uncertainty at
centre stage, and examine the possibility of major, non-marginal change. To meet
these requirements, the Review draws on ideas and techniques from most of the
important areas of economics, including many recent advances.
We conclude in Section V with a discussion of what our results do and do not imply for
actual multipliers. We conclude that multipliers were substantially above 1 in the early years
of the crisis. The lower coefficients in recent years may reflect in part learning by forecasters
and in part smaller actual multipliers than in the early years of the crisis. We end with a
number of caveats.
First, forecasters do not typically use explicit multipliers, but instead use models in which the
actual multipliers depend on the type of fiscal adjustment and on other economic conditions....
In the early 1980s, structural adjustment programs had serious social
costs for most African countries, particularly in terms of job loss. An
unemployment rate of about 30.0 percent resulted from cuts in govern-
ment payrolls and the restructuring or liquidation of enterprises and
financial institutions. The situation was aggravated by urbanization,
making the labor supply particularly elastic in our countries. In Senegal
in 1989, young people accounted for 67.2 percent of the total number of
unemployed men and 52.0 percent of the total number of unemployed
Learning outcome of this chapter 2: Identify the critical assumptions of the two-sector model, define what is meant by a Pareto-optimal allocation of resources; articulate the three conditions for a general equilibrium; distinguish between allocative efficiency, X-efficiency, and ‘dynamic’ efficiency (or economic growth); discuss the broad categories of market failure; explain the allocative, distributive, and stabilisation functions of government; distinguish between direct and indirect forms of government intervention.
Learning objectives of this chapter include: Distinguish between the private and public sector approaches to project evaluation; explain the net present value approach to project evaluation and compare it with the internal rate of return and the benefit-cost ratio; show why, under ideal conditions, public sector projects should strive to maximise consumer (and producer) surplus;...