The discipline of economics has developed principles, theories, and
models that isolate the most important determinants of economic events.
In constructing a model, economists make assumptions to eliminate unnecessary
detail to reduce the complexity of economic behavior. Once
modeled, economic behavior may be presented as a relationship between
dependent and independent variables. The behavior being explained is
the dependent variable; the economic events explaining that behavior are
the independent variables.
ABSTRACT. Scholars have long suspected that political processes such as democracy and corruption are important factors in determining economic growth. Studies show, however, that democracy has only indirect effects on growth, while corruption is generally accepted by scholars as having a direct and negative impact on economic perfor-mance.
The dominant model of the ¢rm in Western economies is the limited liability company
owned by shareholders, but the form varies signi¢cantly between countries. In some
countries the control rights of the owners are limited by powers given to stakeholders
who may share in the appointment and supervision of managers and in the determination
of the enterprise’s objectives. In Germany, for example, large companies recognize
the role of workers and other groups by giving them half the positions on the
supervisory board that oversees the management board (Douma 1997).
ESSAYS ON FINANCIAL ECONOMICS Further research with large-scale voucher programs will be needed to
determine whether administrators of effective schools are rewarded by increased demand in
the choice regimes that these policies create.
TWO ESSAYS IN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS: AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH TO PURCHASING POWER PARITY AND THE MONETARY MODEL OF EXCHANGE RATE DETERMINATION I adopt a different strategy: I compare housing markets that differ in the strength of
the residential location-school assignment link, and I develop simple reduced-form
implications of parental valuations for the across-school distribution of student
characteristics and educational outcomes as a function of the strength of this link.
The growth of investments in mutual funds around the world has widely increased during the
past few decades, leading to fierce competition in the industry. Investors now have a wide
range of products to choose from, which makes their investment decision more complicated
than before. Although there are many factors in their decisions, performance still seems to be
a determining factor (see Ippolito, 1992; Capon et al., 1996; Sirri and Tufano, 1998).
The purpose of the study was to analyze the current practice of shrimp farming in the north central Vietnam, to evaluate the status of agricultural production and economic conditions - social and environment, and determine the limit application of better management practices. The report presents the results of a survey of 90 shrimp farmers in north-central provinces of Vietnam (Ha Tinh, Nghe An and Thua Thien-Hue).
Shrimp production costs mainly by feeding (average 65% of total cost) for different varieties of food between provinces.
Imagine that you are hired by your state government to evaluate the effectiveness of a
publicly funded job training program. Suppose this program teaches workers various
ways to use computers in the manufacturing process. The twenty-week program offers
courses during nonworking hours. Any hourly manufacturing worker may participate,
and enrollment in all or part of the program is voluntary. You are to determine what, if
any, effect the training program has on each worker’s subsequent hourly wage....
The mountainous area occupies three fourth of the total area of Binh Dinh Province. The potential of landuse is very large. However, under the influence of irrational exploitation and natural disasters in the past, the land resource has declined, thus leading to the decline of forest resource. Furthermore, the increase of unused land and bare hills along with the decrease in the cultivated area seriously influenced on the ecological environment as well as the socio-economic development.
The Toulouse School of Economics regularly appears as number one in Europe in rankings based on publication records.
Econphd.net ranked TSE among the best in Europe across all economics fields (first in the world in the economics of
information, and second in the world in industrial organization).
Faculty members are recognized as leaders in their fields and have published many books and articles in top academic
It is however the risks that banks run on the economic side of the equation. Banks -contrary to companies-
cannot reduce their “costs” of production for the products they sell: risk products. They cannot reduce the
reward to the depositors below the market level, otherwise they lose deposits. Banks’ input costs are fixed
and their output income is depending on their own risk selection, but also on the state of an economy, in
other words variable. Companies can adjust their input costs if sales do not materialise.
On the other hand, in order to know the level of economic freedom of each country, the annual study by the
Heritage Foundation and Wall Street Journal, Index of Economic Freedom 2008, is used. In this edition the
study continues implementing the changes of the previous edition, but also added some more information
about the tax load for the people. Due to this change in the study, for its interanual comparison this report
uses the updated data of 2007 with the information included in the 2008 index in order to avoid differences
distorting the reality....
The present study aimed at evaluating the apparent digestibility of rice bran, corn meal and cassava meal for grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The digestibility of nutrients of these plant-ingredients were determined using the indirect method with the incorporation of Cr2O3. Rice bran appeared to have a high digestibility of dry matter (80.3%), protein (87.9 %) and ash (97.4 %) for grass carp. Corn meal has also high digestibility of dry matter (88.9%), protein (84.9%) and ash (92.7%).
Chapter 2 - Demand, supply, and market equilibrium. After reading chapter 2 you should be able to: Work with three different types of demand relations: general, direct, and inverse demand functions; list six principal variables that determine the quantity demanded of a good; derive a direct demand function from a general demand function;...
Chapter 3 - Marginal analysis for optimal decision making. In this chapter, you will learn to: Employ marginal analysis to find the optimal levels of activities in unconstrained maximization problems; explain why sunk costs, fixed costs, and average costs are irrelevant for determining the optimal levels of activities; employ marginal analysis to find the optimal levels of two or more activities in constrained maximization and minimization problems.
Chapter 6 - Elasticity and demand. In this chapter, you will learn to: Explain how price elasticity of demand (E) is used to measure the responsiveness or sensitivity of consumers to a change in the price of a good, explain the role that price elasticity plays in determining how a change in the price of a commodity affects the total revenue (TR = P × Q) received, list and explain several factors that affect the elasticity of demand,...
Chapter 11 - Managerial decisions in competitive markets. In this chapter you will: Discuss three characteristics of perfectly competitive markets; apply the basic principles of marginal analysis to determine either (1) the profitmaximizing (or loss-minimizing) level of output, or (2) the profit-maximizing (or loss-minimizing) level of input usage; Explain why the demand curve facing an individual firm in a perfectly competitive industry is perfectly elastic, and why this demand curve is also the marginal revenue curve for a competitive firm;...
When you finish this chapter, you should be able to: Discuss the general idea of analysis of variance, discuss the general idea of analysis of variance, conduct a test of hypothesis to determine whether the variances of two populations are equal, organize data into a one-way and a two-way ANOVA table.