This chapter for the forthcoming Handbook of Environmental Economics focuses exclusively on the second component, the means — the “instruments” — of environmental policy, and considers, in
particular, experience around the world with the relatively new breed of economic-incentive or marketbased policy instruments.
THE ROLE OF IMPORT SUBSITITUTION AND EXPORT ORIENTATION STRATEGIES ON THAILAND'ECONOMIC GROWTH This result calls the incentive effects of Tiebout choice into question, as it indicates
that administrators of effective schools are no more likely to be rewarded with high demand
for local housing in high-choice than in low-choice markets. To explore this further, I
estimate models for the effect of Tiebout choice on mean scores across metropolitan areas.
Consistent with the earlier results, I find no evidence that high-choice markets produce
higher average SAT scores.
Discuss how incentives af fect people’s behavior
The word economy comes from the Greek word for “one who manages a household.” At first, this origin might seem peculiar. But, in fact, households and economies have much in common. A household faces many decisions.
Three essays consider implications of the strong association between student
background characteristics and academic performance.
Chapter One considers the incentives that school choice policies might create for the
efficient management of schools. These incentives would be diluted if parents prefer
schools with desirable peer groups to those with inferior peers but better policies and
instruction. I model a Tiebout choice housing market in which schools differ in both peer
group and effectiveness.
Since other public investments can provide greater short-term employment and business
activity per dollar spent, transportation projects would not be selected if economic
stimulation were the only objective. Transportation investments justified if they also
increase future economic productivity by reducing business transportation costs, such as
traffic congestion and energy consumption, or achieve other objectives such as improved
mobility for non-drivers.
An economic system must provide the incentives to do those things that alleviate scarcity—produce more and consume less.An economic system must provide the incentives to do those things that alleviate scarcity—produce more and consume less.
This project originated in the Board on Testing and Assessment
(BOTA) in 2002 as the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 was
in its early stages of implementation. The initial discussions were
sparked by the different perspectives on the use of test-based incentives
by the board members, whose expertise included a wide range of disciplines.
In particular, the board’s interest in the topic was animated by the
apparent tension between the economics and educational measurement
literatures about the potential of test-based accountability to improve
One way to avoid that problem is to look at sub-national jurisdic-
tions. For example, the 50 U.S. states have much less variation in reli-
gion and culture than do two nations such as the United States and
China. In 2002, the Fraser Institute produced its first edition of the
Economic Freedom of North America, which provided an index of
economic freedom in U.S. states and Canadian provinces (see
Karabegoviç and McMahon 2008).
Ebook The economics of Environmental Management in Vietnam is compiled with the content: Overview of economic research on environmental issues in Vietnam; the on site costs of soil erosion and benefi ts of soil conservation in the mountainous regions of northern Vietnam; the on site costs of soil erosion and choice of land use systems by upland farmers in central vietnam; environmental consequences of and pollution control options for pond “tra” fish production in the mekong delta a case study in thotnot district, Cantho city; incentives for wastewater management in industrial estates...
Evidence from many countries on the earnings, unemployment, and
occupations of blacks, women, religious groups, immigrants, and others has
expanded enormously during the past twenty-five years. This evidence more
fully documents the economic position of minorities and how that changes
in different environments. However, the evidence has not dispelled some of
the controversies over the source of lower incomes of minorities (see Cain’s
 good review of both the theoretical literature and empirical analysis.)...
In this chapter you will learn that economics is about the allocation of scarce resources, examine some of the tradeoffs that people face, learn the meaning of opportunity cost, see how to use marginal reasoning when making decisions, discuss how incentives affect people’s behavior...
Chapter 1 - Thinking like an economist. This chapter to show that the Cost-Benefit Principle, deciding whether to take an action by comparing the cost and benefit of the action, is a useful approach for dealing with the inevitable trade-offs that scarcity creates. After discussing several important decision pitfalls, the chapter concludes by describing the Incentive Principle and introducing the concept of economic naturalism.
Chapter 10 - Using economics to make better policy decisions. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Describe how the Scarcity Principle applies to choices involving health, use the incentive principle to explain why health care costs have been rising so rapidly, discuss pollution taxes and effluent permits as a means to reduce the cost of improved air quality,...
After studying this chapter you will be able to: Explain the rudiments of how taxes work, describe the concepts of horizontal and vertical equity and how they apply to the issue of taxation, summarize the trade-off that exists between simplicity and horizontal equity when people are making tax policy, describe how taxes can alter the incentives of people to work and save, list examples of where taxes are used to motivate socially desirable outcomes.
Chapter 1 - The power of economics. In this chapter you will learn: Explain the economic concept of scarcity, explain the economic concepts of opportunity cost and marginal decision making, explain the economic concept of incentives, explain the economic concept of efficiency, distinguish between correlation and causation, list the characteristics of a good economic model, distinguish between positive and normative analysis.
After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Relate why the demand curve of an oligopolist may be kinked, compare the incentives and obstacles to collusion among oligopolists, contrast the potential positive and negative effects of advertising, utilize additional game-theory terminology and applications.
After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Differentiate between invention, innovation, and technological diffusion; explain how entrepreneurs and other innovators further technological advance; summarize how a firm determines its optimal amount of research and development (R&D); relate why firms can benefit from their innovation even though rivals have an incentive to imitate it.
This paper analyzes the role of the financial system for economic growth and stability, and addresses a number of core policy issues for financial sector reforms in emerging economies. The role of finance is studied in the context of a circuit model with interacting rational, forward- looking, and heterogeneous agents. Finance is shown to essentially complement the price system in coordinating decentralized intertemporal resource allocation choices from agents operating under limited information and incomplete trust.
Discussion Questions & Answers: Cf: F & O (2005) and F, O, & F (2002) Q1. Why should a tax on gasoline provide a larger incentive to reduce air emissions from motor vehicles than an annual tax on owning a vehicle? Answer: The answer depends upon the magnitude of the fuel tax relative to the vehicle tax. A fuel tax targets the three components of emission reduction (i.e. a) number of vehicles on the road; b) miles per vehicle; and c) emissions per mile). On the other hand, an annual tax affects only the marginal decisions to put a car...