The global economy is in a severe recession infl icted by
a massive fi nancial crisis and acute loss of confi dence.
While the rate of contraction should moderate from
the second quarter onward, world output is projected
to decline by 1.3 percent in 2009 as a whole and to
recover only gradually in 2010, growing by 1.9 percent.
Achieving this turnaround will depend on
stepping up efforts to heal the fi nancial sector, while
continuing to support demand with monetary and
fi scal easing.
Seventy-five percent of the world’s poor live in rural areas and most are involved
in agriculture. In the 21st century, agriculture remains fundamental to economic
growth, poverty alleviation, and environmental sustainability. The World Bank’s
Agriculture and Rural Development publication series presents recent analyses of
issues that affect the role of agriculture, including livestock, fisheries, and forestry,
as a source of economic development, rural livelihoods, and environmental services.
The technique can be applied for
chlorophyll level monitoring in basic photosynthesis research, agriculture, horticulture, and
forestry. Abiotic stress (water deficit, salinity, heat, heavy metals soil contamination, intense
light, etc) affects significantly crop growth and yield in agricultural areas all over the world.
Thus, it is imperative to study their effect upon the crops and discriminate among abiotic
stresses using new noninvasive and nondestructive remote sensing precision diagnostic
To determine post-harvest losses mainly due to the fact cracked rice, the data were collected systematically based on real farmers and also by experimentations in two seasons (wet 2006, dry 2007). 2007 wet season experiments are being pursued today. The main factors considered in this study during data collection are:
• Harvest time before and after the seeds mature
• Harvesting methods manual, harvesters, combine harvesters
• drying method and cost-sun drying and mechanical drying
Meaning, nature and scope of environmental economics; Environmental concerns- concept of
environmental degradation, estimation of economic losses due to environmental degradation and
adjustment measures, comparative advantage/disadvantage of alternative technologies on
environment and sustainability, environmental policy analysis. Agricultural development and its
effect on ecology and environment; Elements of environmental degradation in agriculture-Sub-optimal
land use practices like.
Reduce overall grain production and value by cracking is one of the main problems directly reduces income and the availability of staple food to the farmers in the Mekong Delta. Cracking or fissuring of a grain of wheat that may occur in the rice field by harvest time is not right / real, post-harvest conditions improper drying and milling activities inconsistent.
There are a series of activities during harvesting and processing rice harvest. Figure 1 is a diagram showing a system of rice production in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam today. All strings in this system may contribute to losses.
The Crawford School is the Australian National University’s policy school,
serving Australia, Asia and the Pacific through advanced policy research and
professional training. Our reputation rests on first-class research capacities and
highly successful graduate training programs. Our graduate training and research
frames scholarly and policy debates in Australia and the Asia Pacific region, and
Australia’s relationships with the region.
A conclusion which can be drawn out of above figures is that these liquidation numbers closely follow the
ups and downs of economic growth figures in real terms. This is not at all surprising as businesses depend on
turnover to create cash flows. Liquidations are a lagging indicator of economic growth; they follow the
growth pattern rather than leading it. What above table also makes clear is how bank risks are closely
correlated with economic growth patterns. When companies go bankrupt, it usually also means substantial
write-offs on loans to these companies: an economic loss.
Income tax rates are at the center of many recent policy debates over taxes. Some policymakers
argue that raising tax rates, especially on higher income taxpayers, to increase tax revenues is part
of the solution for long-term debt reduction. For example, in the 112th
Congress the Senate passed
the Middle Class Tax Cut (S. 3412), which would allow the 2001 and 2003 Bush-era tax cuts to
expire for taxpayers with income over $250,000 ($200,000 for single taxpayers). Other
policymakers argue that maintaining low tax rates is necessary to foster economic growth.
This project will enhance the capacity in Vietnam to 'train the trainers', extension workers and staff responsible for the maintenance of quality of commodities during storage and marketing.
PHTI will provide flexible integrated courses on various aspects of post-harvest commodity quality management, with particular attention to containment and loss reduction. The training group will also be able to develop new training modules applicable to contaminant reduction in fruit and vegetables as strategies for monitoring and management of contaminants in vegetables are further developed....
Finally, all the countries that successfully used austerity to boost growth had much higher interest
rates than the United States does at present. This meant that there was substantial room for rates to
decline following the imposition of austerity.
The differences between the United States in 2010 and the countries that have successfully gone the
route of fiscal austerity to boost growth are large and are very central to the adjustment process.
The land and forest fires that
hit the ASEAN region in 1997-
1998 have been so severe
that the United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP) labeled them
as among the most damaging in
recorded history. Their environmental,
economic and social dimensions
and impact, and the associated
transboundary haze pollution
have been profound. The
total economic losses in terms of
agriculture production, destruction
of forest lands, health, transportation,
tourism, and other economic
endeavors have been estimated at
In this chapter, you learned to: Define the terms state of nature, event, decision alternatives, payoff, and utility; organize information in a payoff table or a decision tree; compute opportunity loss and utility function; find an optimal decision alternative based on a given decision criterion; assess the expected value of additional information.
In this chapter you will examine how taxes reduce consumer and producer surplus, learn the meaning and causes of the deadweight loss of a tax, consider why some taxes have larger deadweight losses than others, examine how tax revenue and deadweight loss vary with the size of a tax.
Chapter 6 - Elasticity, consumer surplus, and producer surplus. In this chapter, students will be able to: Price elasticity of demand, the total revenue test, price elasticity of supply, cross elasticity of demand, income elasticity of demand, consumer & producer surplus, efficiency losses.
Chapter 14 - Rent, interest, and profit. After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Explain the nature of economic rent and how it is determined; describe the loanable funds theory of interest rates; demonstrate how interest rates relate to the time-value of money and vary based on risk, maturity, loan size, and taxability; relate why economic profits occur, and how profits, along with losses, allocate resources among alternative uses; list the share of U.S. earnings received by each of the factors of production.
Chapter 17 - Public choice theory and the economics of taxation. Learning objectives of this chapter include: Conveying economic preferences through majority voting; government failure; tax philosophies and the tax burden; tax shifting, tax incidence, and efficiency losses from taxes.
In this chapter you will: Discuss three characteristics of perfectly competitive markets; apply the basic principles of marginal analysis to determine either (1) the profitmaximizing (or loss-minimizing) level of output, or (2) the profit-maximizing (or loss-minimizing) level of input usage; Explain why the demand curve facing an individual firm in a perfectly competitive industry is perfectly elastic, and why this demand curve is also the marginal revenue curve for a competitive firm;...
Chapter 14 - Monopoly and monopolistic competition. After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Summarize how and why the decisions facing a monopolist differ from the collective decisions of competing firms; determine a monopolist's price, output, and profit graphically and numerically; show graphically the welfare loss from monopoly; explain why there would be no monopoly without barriers to entry.