(George Caleb Bingham, Stump Speaking, 1853–54) All rights reserved. ... will soon Free-market economics, of which the Austrian School is
the preeminent exponent, asserts that every govern-
ment intervention in the market generates conse-
quences that are deleterious for prosperity and human liberty.
However much such interventions may assist one group in
the short run, everyone is made worse off in the long run.
Government intervention destabilizes economic life in artifi-
cial ways, and ultimately does not work to bring about the
results that its proponents claim to desire....
Whether the economy can successfully create enough jobs for welfare workers is yet to be seen. The existence of discriminatory practices, particularly in labor markets, compounds the problems of poverty. The groups with the highest rates of poverty, black families and those headed by a female, are also groups that are susceptible to being victims of discrimination. This chapter provides knowledge of poverty and discrimination.
There are many reasons for womenís lower earnings compared to men, including tenure
in the labour force, occupational segregation, unionization and discrimination. Statistics
Canada has found that 18% of the wage gap is explained by the fact that women
generally have less work experience than their male counterparts, supervise other
employees less often and are less frequently involved in administrative decisions.
Roughly 7% of the gap is explained by the fact that women are more likely to work part
time than men.
Chapter 17 - Work and the labor market. In this chapter you will learn: Explain how the supply of labor is determined, explain how the demand for labor is determined, explain how wages are determined by both the supply and demand for labor in combination with social forces, contrast four types of discrimination that occur in labor markets.
The actual discrimination in the market place against a minority group
depends on the combined discrimination of employers, workers, consum-
ers, schools, and governments. The analysis shows that sometimes the
environment greatly softens, while at other times it magnifies, the impact of
a given amount of prejudice. For example, the discrepancy in wages be-
tween equally productive blacks and whites, or women and men, would be
much smaller than the degree of prejudice against blacks and women when
many companies can efficiently specialize in employing mainly blacks or
A novel theoretical development in recent years is the analysis of the
consequences of stereotyped reasoning or statistical discrimination (see
Phelps , and Arrow ). This analysis suggests that the beliefs of
employers, teachers, and other influential groups that minority members
are less productive can be self-fulfilling, for these beliefs may cause minor-
ities to underinvest in education, training, and work skills, such as punctual-
ity. The underinvestment does make them less productive (see a good recent
analysis by Loury )....
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This theory of the labor market, though widely accepted by economists, is only the beginning of the story. To understand the wide variation in earnings that we observe, we must go beyond this general framework and examine more precisely what determines the supply and demand for different types of labor. That is our goal in this chapter.
In this chapter, students will be able to understand: How can a negative income tax solve the “welfare mess”? Could the rich become richer in the 1980’s and other income groups also become better off? What is the effect on labor markets of laws that protect women from jobs deemed “too strenuous” or “too dangerous”?,...
The topics discussed in chapter 12 are discrimination and male-female earning differentials. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Wages differences between men and women, methods of measuring discrimination, discrimination against women, effective policies.
Chapter 24 - Monopolistic competition. The following will be discussed in this chapter: The monopolistic competitor in the short and long runs, product differentiation, the characteristics of monopolistic competition, price discrimination.
Chapter 20 - Income inequality, poverty, and discrimination. In this chapter, you will learn to: Income inequality in the U.S, sources of income inequality, income inequality since 1970, economic arguments regarding income inequality, poverty measurement and incidence, the U.S. income-maintenance program, labor market discrimination.
Chapter 14 - Advanced pricing techniques. In this chapter we have looked at a lot of special situations for which pricing decisions are more complicated than for the simple firm that we studied in the first four parts of this text. We showed you why uniform pricing does not maximize the total revenue a pricesetting firm can collect from consumers.
When you finish this chapter, you should: Apply and manipulate the aggregate supply and aggregate demand model of macroeconomics, explain why the aggregate demand curve is downward-sloping and why there is controversy over the shape of the aggregate supply curve, list the variables that shift these curves and understand how the shifting translates into price and output impacts, discriminate between demand-pull and cost-push inflation, summarize what is meant by supply-side economics.
Chapter 30 provides knowledge of gender. In this chapter, students will be able to understand: What is discrimination? Why women make less than men? Modeling sex discrimination, explain intergenerational income mobility and compare its degree across the developed world.
Chapter 14 - Monopoly and monopolistic competition. After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Summarize how and why the decisions facing a monopolist differ from the collective decisions of competing firms; determine a monopolist's price, output, and profit graphically and numerically; show graphically the welfare loss from monopoly; explain why there would be no monopoly without barriers to entry.
Chapter 21 - Poverty, inequality, and discrimination. In this chapter you will learn: What the difference is between relative and absolute measures of poverty? How to explain different methods of measuring income inequality? How income mobility differs from income equality?
Chapter 8 - Pure monopoly. This chapter is divided into six basic sections: the characteristics of pure monopoly, the barriers to entry that create and protect monopolies, price and output determination under monopoly, the economic effects of monopoly, price discrimination under monopoly, and the regulation of monopolies.
The technique can be applied for
chlorophyll level monitoring in basic photosynthesis research, agriculture, horticulture, and
forestry. Abiotic stress (water deficit, salinity, heat, heavy metals soil contamination, intense
light, etc) affects significantly crop growth and yield in agricultural areas all over the world.
Thus, it is imperative to study their effect upon the crops and discriminate among abiotic
stresses using new noninvasive and nondestructive remote sensing precision diagnostic
In order to deal with the many challenges in Northern Uganda, such as poverty and discrimination against
women, AWARE utilizes several strategies to empower women. The encourage women to be part of a
rotating loan scheme as they have found that rotating loans and subsequent economic empowerment
enhance women’s decision-making power in the household. AWARE also holds dialogues with Local
Councils to encourage the council to give women land, and to take other measures to reduce discrimination