This series will contain essays by representative scholars and men of affairs dealing with the various phases of the moral law in its bearing on business life under the new
.economic order, first delivered at the University of California on the Weinstock foundation.
This chapter define fiscal policy and describe fiscal goals and instruments at the macroeconomic, sectoral and microeconomic levels; discuss the evolution of views on the macroeconomic role of fiscal policy, focusing on the distinction between the Keynesian and structural approaches and the choice between discretionary and rulesbased fiscal regimes; distinguish between the various definitions of budget balance and explain the economic significance of each;...
The United States has seen major advances in medical care over the past decades, but
access to care at an affordable cost is not universal. Many Americans lack health care insurance
of any kind, and many others with insurance are nonetheless exposed to financial risk because of
high premiums, deductibles, co-pays, limits on insurance payments, and uncovered services. One
might expect that the U.S. poverty measure would capture these financial effects and trends in
them over time.
Foreign direct investment (FDI) flows amounted to 1,697 billion USD in 2008, while
global FDI stocks reached a level of more than 16,205 billion USD.1 These figures
underline the fact that FDI has gained an importance that is comparable to trade in
providing foreign markets with goods and services.2 In addition, FDI constitutes the
largest source of external finance for developing countries.3 Nevertheless, the global
financial crisis had a significant impact on FDI at the end of 2008, reducing flows by
approximately 14.2% compared to the all-time high of 1,978 billion USD in 2007.
Though postcolonialism has emerged as one of the most significant theoretical movements in literary and cultural studies, scant attention has been paid to the importance of trade and trade relations to debates about culture. Focusing on the past two centuries, this volume investigates the links among trade, colonialism, and forms of representation, posing the question, 'What is the historical or modern relationship between economic inequality and imperial patterns of representation and reading?
The value of the UK LCEGS sector was £106.5 billion in 2007/8. In terms of size, this puts the low
carbon and environmental economy somewhere between the UK’s healthcare and construction
The UK is the world’s sixth largest low carbon and environmental economy, with 3.5% of global market
share. As shown in Figure 2, the Environmental sector accounts for £22.3 billion (21%) of total UK
market value, Renewable Energy for £31.
Disability is an important issue for the transition countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Not only is a significant portion of their population either in poor health or disabled-with implications for labor force participation and productivity-but their aging demographics project an increase in the share of disabled people, raising concerns about the sustainability of social protection programs.
However, such a strategy is inappropriate for the United States in current
circumstances. Inflation expectations appear reasonably well-anchored, and both
inflation expectations and actual inflation remain within a range consistent with price
stability. In this context, raising the inflation objective would likely entail much greater
costs than benefits. Inflation would be higher and probably more volatile under such a
policy, undermining confidence and the ability of firms and households to make longer-
term plans, while squandering the Fed’s hard-won inflation credibility.
These factors have had the effect of slowing or declining international student enrolments,
with prospects of worse to come. The effects of policy‐induced changes to student visas and
skilled migration, the most important of which came into effect only quite recently, are
likely to be only seen in the coming months.
Higher education was the prime initiator of the international student export success and
remains the most economically significant part of the whole sector.
For while the growing abundance of goods may reduce the value of addi-
tional goods, time becomes more valuable as goods become more abundant.
Utility maximization is of no relevance in a Utopia where everyone’s needs
are fully satisfied, but the constant flow of time makes such a Utopia
impossible. These are some of the issues analyzed in Becker , and
The following sections illustrate the economic approach with four very
The study finds that CED approaches should be centred on young womenís needs ñ
childcare was most frequently mentioned as a key component of any support to young
mothers, for example. CED must consider the long-term benefits for women to improve
their wages and economic security by building transferable skills that are valued in the
economy. Whenever possible, these should be guided and led by young women
themselves, who identified that they wish to have the opportunity to lead the next
generation of youth.
This study found that many of the supports young women are...
We focus on the impact of two main policy changes: first, the increase in the rice export quota and the significant increase in the price of rice, especially in the south; second, liberalization of the fertilizer market and the sharp drop in the price of fertilizer. To this end, we document changes in the empirically observable “institutional environment,” exploring changes in rice and other crop prices as well as fertilizer prices.
The institution of a leisure class is found in its best development at the higher stages of the barbarian culture; as, for instance, in feudal Europe or feudal Japan. In such communities the distinction between classes is very rigorously observed; and the feature of most striking economic significance in these class differences is the distinction maintained between the employments proper to the several classes. The upper classes are by custom exempt or excluded from industrial occupations, and are reserved for certain employments to which a degree of honour attaches.
The data below are a summary of the findings. Findings found at the
town and parish level are included in the pages that follow.
Economic Impacts: 44% of those surveyed had the livelihood of their
household’s primary provider impacted. Nearly a quarter report needing
but not receiving economic assistance due to lost income. More than
10% of those surveyed were considering moving.
Chapter 12 - The demand for resources. In this chapter, students will be able to understand: Explain the significance of resource pricing, convey how the marginal revenue productivity of a resource relates to a firm's demand for that resource, list the factors that increase or decrease resource demand, discuss the determinants of elasticity of resource demand, determine how a competitive firm selects its optimal combination of resources.
Chapter 37 - Macro policy in a global setting. After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Discuss why there is significant debate about what U.S. international goals should be, describe the paths through which monetary and fiscal policy affect the trade balance, summarize the reasons why governments try to coordinate their monetary and fiscal policies, explain how restoring U.S. competitiveness will likely affect U.S. policy in the future.
In this chapter: Explain how economists look at the federal budget deficits and surpluses and the national debt, associate significant deficits as resulting from wars and severe recessions/depressions, conclude that economists are interested less in raw numbers than in more sophisticated measures of the burdens that deficits and debt place on us,...
When you finish this chapter, you should: Describe how poverty is measured, summarize the demographics of poverty in the United States, and show how the percentage of the population that is poor has changed through the last 40 years; enumerate the significant problems associated with the federal government’s official poverty rate; list and describe the myriad programs that exist for the poor;...
Chapter 9 - Growth. After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Explain the benefits of economic growth, calculate the economic growth rate, discuss the short-term and long-term change in livings standards and calculate real GDP per capita, list the forces driving economic growth, explain the role of government in economic growth.
In this chapter, students will be able to understand: Explain the significance of resource pricing, convey how the marginal revenue productivity of a resource relates to a firm's demand for that resource, list the factors that increase or decrease resource demand, discuss the determinants of elasticity of resource demand, determine how a competitive firm selects its optimal combination of resources.