Economic significance

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  • This series will contain essays by representative scholars and men of affairs dealing with the various phases of the moral law in its bearing on business life under the new .economic order, first delivered at the University of California on the Weinstock foundation.

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  • This chapter define fiscal policy and describe fiscal goals and instruments at the macroeconomic, sectoral and microeconomic levels; discuss the evolution of views on the macroeconomic role of fiscal policy, focusing on the distinction between the Keynesian and structural approaches and the choice between discretionary and rulesbased fiscal regimes; distinguish between the various definitions of budget balance and explain the economic significance of each;...

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  • Foreign direct investment (FDI) flows amounted to 1,697 billion USD in 2008, while global FDI stocks reached a level of more than 16,205 billion USD.1 These figures underline the fact that FDI has gained an importance that is comparable to trade in providing foreign markets with goods and services.2 In addition, FDI constitutes the largest source of external finance for developing countries.3 Nevertheless, the global financial crisis had a significant impact on FDI at the end of 2008, reducing flows by approximately 14.2% compared to the all-time high of 1,978 billion USD in 2007.

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  • The United States has seen major advances in medical care over the past decades, but access to care at an affordable cost is not universal. Many Americans lack health care insurance of any kind, and many others with insurance are nonetheless exposed to financial risk because of high premiums, deductibles, co-pays, limits on insurance payments, and uncovered services. One might expect that the U.S. poverty measure would capture these financial effects and trends in them over time.

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  • Though postcolonialism has emerged as one of the most significant theoretical movements in literary and cultural studies, scant attention has been paid to the importance of trade and trade relations to debates about culture. Focusing on the past two centuries, this volume investigates the links among trade, colonialism, and forms of representation, posing the question, 'What is the historical or modern relationship between economic inequality and imperial patterns of representation and reading?

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  • The  value of  the UK  LCEGS  sector was £106.5 billion  in 2007/8.  In  terms of  size,  this puts  the  low  carbon  and  environmental  economy  somewhere  between  the  UK’s  healthcare  and  construction  sectors.   The UK is the world’s sixth largest low carbon and environmental economy, with 3.5% of global market  share.  As  shown  in  Figure 2,  the  Environmental  sector  accounts  for £22.3 billion  (21%) of  total UK  market  value,  Renewable  Energy  for  £31.

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  • Disability is an important issue for the transition countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Not only is a significant portion of their population either in poor health or disabled-with implications for labor force participation and productivity-but their aging demographics project an increase in the share of disabled people, raising concerns about the sustainability of social protection programs.

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  • However, such a strategy is inappropriate for the United States in current circumstances. Inflation expectations appear reasonably well-anchored, and both inflation expectations and actual inflation remain within a range consistent with price stability. In this context, raising the inflation objective would likely entail much greater costs than benefits. Inflation would be higher and probably more volatile under such a policy, undermining confidence and the ability of firms and households to make longer- term plans, while squandering the Fed’s hard-won inflation credibility.

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  • These factors have had the effect of slowing or declining  international student enrolments,  with prospects of worse to come. The effects of policy‐induced changes to student visas and  skilled migration,  the most  important  of which  came  into  effect  only  quite  recently,  are  likely to be only seen in the coming months.  Higher  education was  the  prime  initiator  of  the  international  student  export  success  and  remains the most economically significant part of the whole sector.

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  • For while the growing abundance of goods may reduce the value of addi- tional goods, time becomes more valuable as goods become more abundant. Utility maximization is of no relevance in a Utopia where everyone’s needs are fully satisfied, but the constant flow of time makes such a Utopia impossible. These are some of the issues analyzed in Becker [1965], and Linder [1970]. The following sections illustrate the economic approach with four very different subjects.

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  • The study finds that CED approaches should be centred on young womenís needs ñ childcare was most frequently mentioned as a key component of any support to young mothers, for example. CED must consider the long-term benefits for women to improve their wages and economic security by building transferable skills that are valued in the economy. Whenever possible, these should be guided and led by young women themselves, who identified that they wish to have the opportunity to lead the next generation of youth. This study found that many of the supports young women are...

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  • We focus on the impact of two main policy changes: first, the increase in the rice export quota and the significant increase in the price of rice, especially in the south; second, liberalization of the fertilizer market and the sharp drop in the price of fertilizer. To this end, we document changes in the empirically observable “institutional environment,” exploring changes in rice and other crop prices as well as fertilizer prices.

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  • The institution of a leisure class is found in its best development at the higher stages of the barbarian culture; as, for instance, in feudal Europe or feudal Japan. In such communities the distinction between classes is very rigorously observed; and the feature of most striking economic significance in these class differences is the distinction maintained between the employments proper to the several classes. The upper classes are by custom exempt or excluded from industrial occupations, and are reserved for certain employments to which a degree of honour attaches.

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  • The


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  • Chapter 12 - The demand for resources. In this chapter, students will be able to understand: Explain the significance of resource pricing, convey how the marginal revenue productivity of a resource relates to a firm's demand for that resource, list the factors that increase or decrease resource demand, discuss the determinants of elasticity of resource demand, determine how a competitive firm selects its optimal combination of resources.

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  • Chapter 37 - Macro policy in a global setting. After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Discuss why there is significant debate about what U.S. international goals should be, describe the paths through which monetary and fiscal policy affect the trade balance, summarize the reasons why governments try to coordinate their monetary and fiscal policies, explain how restoring U.S. competitiveness will likely affect U.S. policy in the future.

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  • In this chapter: Explain how economists look at the federal budget deficits and surpluses and the national debt, associate significant deficits as resulting from wars and severe recessions/depressions, conclude that economists are interested less in raw numbers than in more sophisticated measures of the burdens that deficits and debt place on us,...

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  • When you finish this chapter, you should: Describe how poverty is measured, summarize the demographics of poverty in the United States, and show how the percentage of the population that is poor has changed through the last 40 years; enumerate the significant problems associated with the federal government’s official poverty rate; list and describe the myriad programs that exist for the poor;...

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  • In this chapter, students will be able to understand: Explain the significance of resource pricing, convey how the marginal revenue productivity of a resource relates to a firm's demand for that resource, list the factors that increase or decrease resource demand, discuss the determinants of elasticity of resource demand, determine how a competitive firm selects its optimal combination of resources.

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  • E-business research is currently one of the most active research areas. With the rapid advancement in information technologies, e-business is growing in significance and is having a direct impact upon ways of doing business. As e-business becomes one of the most important areas in organizations, researchers and practitioners need to understand the implications of many technological and organizational changes taking place.

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