Economic terms

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  • The purpose of this guide is to explain in simple terms, the twenty economic indicators followed by most investors and analysts. The next time you hear these terms in the media and or financial press, you can use the information in this guide to evaluate their potential effect on the economy and ultimately your portfolio.

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  • Most important, this edition adds more than 500 new words and terms that have come into common use since the previous edition was published. The addi- tions are by no means comprehensive, but they include some of the most promi- nent new locutions in a language that has grown increasingly rich. The Queen’s English, often regarded as a paradigm of correct and "proper" usage, has been busy absorbing words and phrases from diverse sources—some reflecting new political alignments, some from overseas, many from the argot of the street. ...

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  • In an age of uncertainty, peering 15 years into the future may seem like hubris. But ignoring long-term trends—demographic, economic, corporate—is an even less attractive option. Understanding the long-term future is vital in ensuring that strategies are sustainable, that opportunities are identified at an early stage and that challenges are addressed beforethey become insurmountable. This report assesses likely changes to the global economy, to eight major industries and to corporate structures between now and 2020. Our research drew on three main initiatives....

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  • During the past three centuries, three economists stand out as archetypes, symbols of three distinct approaches to economic philosophy. In the eighteenth century, Adam Smith, a student of the Scottish Enlightenment, expounded a “system of natural liberty” (what we might term a liberal democratic order consisting of an unfettered market and limited government), and elucidated how a nation flourishes and advances the standard of living of its citizens.

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  • Foreign direct investment may improve productivity through technology transfer on the one hand, and it may also have other positive external effects through corporate linkages (e.g. market access, or improved terms of financing) on the other hand, thus promoting economic growth. These beneficial effects are not automatic, though. Until the mid-nineties Hungary had played a leading role within the region in attracting investments. After 1999, however, the country started accumulating increasing competitive disadvantages as compared to its competitors.

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  • To an economist, a contract is an agreement under which two parties make reciprocal commitments in terms of their behavior - a bilateral coordination arrangement. Of course, this formulation touches on the legal concept of the contract (a meeting of minds creating effects in law), but also transcends it.

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  • The most informative dictionary of economics available, the Routledge Dictionary of Economics avoids the tendency to indulge in long-winded definitions of the major concepts and provides students with a lucid, comprehensive and accurate guide to the discipline. Employing the key feature of further reading with many of the terms, the book uses the subject classification system defined by the Journal of Economic Literature and The Economic Journal.

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  • Economics is the social science that analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. The term economics comes from the Ancient Greek οἰκονομία (oikonomia, "management of a household, administration") from οἶκος (oikos, "house") + νόμος (nomos, "custom" or "law"), hence "rules of the house(hold)".

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  • A number of assumptions have been adopted for the projections presented in the World Economic Outlook.

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  • Fifty Major Economists provides a comprehensive and clear exposition of the ideas of those individuals responsible for shaping the discipline of economics. Numerous examples help to illustrate the key concepts and ideas of these economists. The book covers a wide range of thinkers, spanning several centuries, beginning with Thomas Mun and Adam Smith, and progressing to recent Nobel Prize winners such as Robert Lucas and Amartya Sen.

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  • Few branches of economics have wielded as much influence on the world of policy as development economics. Virtually every major development strategy of the last 50 years is associated with some pioneering research that provided its intellectual underpinnings. Consider some of the key milestones. The dominant import substitution policies of the 1950s and 1960s were the practical realization of the ideas of Prebisch (1959) and Singer (1964) and were based on the famous Prebisch-Singer thesis on the declining terms of trade for primary products and the dynamic benefits of manufacturing. ...

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  • This book is not simply an annotated roster of the Society of Dead Economists. As living economists grapple with modern economic problems and begin to alter their views, more and more readers are discovering a need for transitional books, books that bridge the gap between what economics has been and what it is becoming. A Brief History of Economics: Artful Approaches to the Dismal Science reflects this desire for a bridge over sometimes troubled waters.

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  • Aquaculture is a general term for the resource, giving the human animal from the environment and human exploitation, aquaculture harvest used for food, raw materials or sold on the market. In the aquatic species, most commonly used fishing activities, aquaculture and exploitation of fish.

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  • Stock Markets, Banks, and Economic Growth Ross Levine; Sara Zervos The American Economic Review, Vol. 88, No. 3. (Jun., 1998), pp. 537-558. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8282%28199806%2988%3A3%3C537%3ASMBAEG%3E2.0.CO%3B2-9 The American Economic Review is currently published by American Economic Association. Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/about/terms.html.

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  • The prevailing low food production in sub-Saharan Africa is an issue of great concern especially since Africa south of the Sahara is the only remaining region of the world where per capita food production has remained stagnant. This chapter reviews long-term experiments in Africa in the context of shifting paradigms related to tropical soil fertility management from fi rst external input paradigm right through to the current Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) approach, which is a culmination of the participatory methods developed along the paradigm shift.

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  • The two projects have the same economic impact, in terms of generating income for factors of production and inducing additional expenditures, but the hospital has a higher net present value than the hole in the ground.

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  • The  value of  the UK  LCEGS  sector was £106.5 billion  in 2007/8.  In  terms of  size,  this puts  the  low  carbon  and  environmental  economy  somewhere  between  the  UK’s  healthcare  and  construction  sectors.   The UK is the world’s sixth largest low carbon and environmental economy, with 3.5% of global market  share.  As  shown  in  Figure 2,  the  Environmental  sector  accounts  for £22.3 billion  (21%) of  total UK  market  value,  Renewable  Energy  for  £31.

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  • The lecture notes are organized as follows: Chapter 1 gives a concise overview of the theory of Lebesgue and Stieltjes integration and convergence theorems used repeatedly in this course. For mathematic students, familiar e.g. with the content of Bauer (1996) or Bauer (2001), this chapter can be skipped or used as additional reference . Chapter 2 follows closely F¨ollmer’s approach to Itˆo’s calculus, and is to a large extent based on lectures given by him in Bonn (see Foellmer (1991)). A motivation for this approach is given in Sect. 2.1.

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  • Preliminary analysis of the data reveals some noteworthy similarities and differences between Chile and the other countries considered. Over this sample period, Chilean interest rates are on average higher, more volatile, and less persistent than the interest rates for the other countries. However, in Chile, the degree of co-movement between retail bank interest rates and the money market rate is essentially the same as in other countries.

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  • A community of interbreeding individuals. No degree of relationship is assumed. •The term “Stand”is often used synonymously. Geographic location where seed was collected.•Refers to natural forests, not plantations.•Provenance boundaries not always clear-cut, often one of judgment and opinion.•Provenance may have different genetic adaptation.

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