Foreign direct investment may improve productivity through technology
transfer on the one hand, and it may also have other positive external effects through
corporate linkages (e.g. market access, or improved terms of financing) on the other
hand, thus promoting economic growth. These beneficial effects are not automatic,
though. Until the mid-nineties Hungary had played a leading role within the region
in attracting investments. After 1999, however, the country started accumulating
increasing competitive disadvantages as compared to its competitors.
I have worked with many people—clients, attorneys and international examiners,
fellow transfer pricing economists and others—over the years, all of whom have
contributed greatly to my understanding of the issues addressed in this book. I
thank all of these individuals for their professionalism, their willingness to share
their knowledge, and their friendship. I would also like to thank several people for
their extremely helpful and insightful comments on this manuscript. Conﬁdential-
ity constraints prevent me from mentioning anyone by name.
The account measures the Total Ecosystem
Accessible Fresh Water (TEAW) and the Net
Ecosystem Accessible Fresh Water Surplus (NEAWS)
adjusted for water stress during the vegetation
Accounts in m3 are established for water stocks
in terrestrial ecosystems (soil and vegetation)
and water bodies (aquifers, lakes and dams,
rivers). They include a distinction between total
and accessible stocks, the difference being due to
physical or economic constraints of abstraction,
pollution or time mismatch between availability and
requirements for natural or human uses.
The study finds that CED approaches should be centred on young womenís needs ñ
childcare was most frequently mentioned as a key component of any support to young
mothers, for example. CED must consider the long-term benefits for women to improve
their wages and economic security by building transferable skills that are valued in the
economy. Whenever possible, these should be guided and led by young women
themselves, who identified that they wish to have the opportunity to lead the next
generation of youth.
This study found that many of the supports young women are...
Chapter 3 - Labour supply and public policy. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Labour supply factors, government transfer programs, welfare programs, workers compensation, child-care subsidies,...and other contents.
After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Identify the main categories of government spending and the main sources of government revenue; summarize the different philosophies regarding the distribution of a nation's tax burden; explain the principles relating to tax shifting, tax incidence, and the efficiency losses caused by taxes; demonstrate how the distribution of income between rich and poor is affected by government taxes, transfers, and spending.
A derivative is a contract that is used to transfer risk. There are many
different underlying risks, ranging from fluctuations in energy prices to
weather risks. Most derivatives, however, are based on financial securities
such as common stocks, bonds and foreign exchange instruments.
Banks operating in the main developed countries have been exposed, since the Seventies,
to four significant drivers of change, mutually interconnected and mutually reinforcing.
The first one is a stronger integration among national financial markets (such as stock
markets and markets for interest rates and FX rates) which made it easier, for economic
shocks, to spread across national boundaries.
Commerce is the whole system of an economy that constitutes an environment for business. The system includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural, and technological systems that are in operation in any country. Thus, commerce is a system or an environment that affects the business prospects of an economy or a nation-state. We can also define it as a second component of business which includes all activities, functions and institutions involved in transferring goods from producers to consumer....
An important aspect of nuclear reactor core analysis involves the determination of the optimal coolant flow distribution and pressure drop across the reactor core. On the one hand, higher coolant flow rates will lead to better heat transfer coefficients and higher Critical Heat Flux (CHF) limits. On the other hand, higher flows rates will also in large pressure drops across the reactor core, hence larger required pumping powers and larger dynamic loads on the core components.
Christopher L. Culp is an adjunct professor of finance at the Graduate
School of Business of the University of Chicago, where he
teaches graduate-level courses on derivatives, alternative risk
transfer, risk management, and investments. He also offers a graduate
seminar on insurance during winter quarters as a guest professor of risk
and insurance in the Institut für Finanzmanagement at Universität Bern
This volume includes eleven papers that were prepared as part of a research
project on International Aspects of Taxation by the National Bureau of
Economic Research. The papers examine the role of taxation in cross-border
flows of capital and goods, the real and financial decisions of multinational
corporations, and the implications of growing economic interdependence for
a country’s choice of a tax system. These papers were presented at a
The financial markets touch all of our lives. If you didn’t believe that in
years past, you surely do now after the tumultuous events of the late
The workings and integrity of those markets are vital to our increasingly
global and interconnected economies.
If you’ve chosen a career that involves working in the securities industry,
you have a front-row seat in a dynamic and sometimes unpredictable field.
George (Tres) Arnett and I met many years ago at Yale University where
we both studied economics.
Inventory data on land acquisitions highlight the role of policies and
domestic players, as well as the limited benefits attained to date.Data from offi-
cial registries in 14 countries3 suggest that policies influence the size and nature
of large-scale land transfers, whether by lease or by sale. In Tanzania, where
land rights are firmly vested with villages, less than 50,000 ha were transferred
to investors between January 2004 and June 2009. By contrast, over the same
period in Mozambique, 2.7 million were transferred.
Global warming is theenvironmental issue of the twenty-first century.
Many believe it ranks with war and poverty as one of the greatest
challenges to human well-being. But unlike war and poverty, which
humanity has confronted for millennia, global warming is a recent
concern. And unlike war and poverty, global warming is mainly a pro-spective threat and one that can in principle be met with pre-emptive
Ten years have elapsed since the second German edition of the
present book was published. During this period the external appear-
ance of the currency and banking problems of the world has com-
pletely altered. But closer examination reveals that the same
fundamental issues are being contested now as then. Then, England
was on the way to raising the gold-value of the pound once more
to its pre-war level.
Dobrinsky et al. (2001) conjecture that some specific types of soft budget constraints
in a transitional environment may emerge as a result of distortions in incentive structures. In
particular, distorted incentives may have an effect both on the determinants of credit supply
and credit demand.
In turn, incentive structures are a reflection of the institutional
environment and the conduct of economic policy in the broader sense. Consequently, policy
reforms and policy shocks can be expected to affect the determinants of credit flows both on
the supply and the demand side.
The ultimate purpose of ecosystem capital accounts
is to assess whether economic use of ecosystems
results in an increase and/or improvement, a steady
state, or a degradation of the natural assets which
together are used as economic resources, consumed
by the economy as free externalities, and/or directly
supply a range of free services to individuals or
humankind as a whole. As the measurement of
ecosystem capital on the basis of private benefits
is necessarily incomplete, it can be misleading.