In 1979, Glenford Myers published
a book that turned out to be a classic. Myers’s original The Art of Software
Testing stood the test of time, 25 years on the publisher’s list of
available books. This fact alone is a testament to the solid, basic, and
valuable nature of his work.
During that same time, the current authors of the updated version
of this book published collectively more than 120 books, most of
them on computer software topics. Some of these books sold very
well, going through multiple versions....
At the time this book was first
published, in 1979, it was a well-known rule of thumb that in a typical
programming project approximately 50 percent of the elapsed
time and more than 50 percent of the total cost were expended in
testing the program or system being developed.
Significant and sustained increases in semiconductor productivity, predicted
by Moore’s Law, has ushered a revolution in communications, computing, and
information management.1 This technological revolution is linked to a distinct
rise in the mid 1990s of the long-term growth trajectory of the United States.2
Indeed, U.S. productivity growth has accelerated in recent years, despite a series
of negative economic shocks.
In 1979, Glenford Myers published a book that turned out to be a classic. Myers’s original The Art of Software Testing stood the test of time, 25 years on the publisher’s list of available books. This fact alone is a testament to the solid,...
Tài liệu về kinh tế học pháp luật. Tài liệu bằng tiếng Anh, mời các bạn cùng tham khảo. Excursus: Coase Theorem: “In a world of zero transaction costs an efficient
allocation of resource will ensue regardless of the
initial distribution of resources.“
At parties, people no longer give me a blank stare when I tell them I write free software. "Oh, yes, open
source—like Linux?" they say. I nod eagerly in agreement. "Yes, exactly! That's what I do." It's nice not
to be completely fringe anymore.
The software engineer’s job is to solve problems economically by developing high-quality software. In this first chapter we will present important issues that all software engineers should understand to do their jobs well. In this chapter you will learn about the following: How does software differ from other products? How does software change over time? What do we mean when we talk about high-quality software? What types of software are there and what are their main differences? How are software projects organized? How successful are typical projects?...
In the euphoria over IT and the Internet in the 1990s and early
2000s, Customer Relationship Management (CRM) took center
stage. Most every major company invested heavily in broad suites of
demand side applications that were supposed to transform interactions
with customers and drive sales and profitability. The logic behind
CRM seemed compelling, and companies invested to the tune of
tens of billions of dollars. Siebel Systems, among others, attained the
status of a stock market darling as sales of software licenses grew exponentially.
With the rise of the internet and the growing concern over intellectual property, this study provides an open, constructive platform for a wide range of lawyers, artists, journalists, and activists to discuss their views on the future of free and open-source software. By exchanging both complementary and conflicting opinions, the contributors look ahead to the evolution, prospects, and issues of sharing knowledge and ideas through technology.
This study contains two objectives. The Örst is the identiÖcation of the
public perception of monetary policy to establish a relationship between this
perception, the behaviour of monetary authorities and some key economic
variables. The second objective is the identiÖcation of the relationship between
monetary policy and the term structure of interest rates. In particular, we are
interested by the link with long-term interest rates. From this perspective,
the works of Kozicki and Tinsley (1998, 2001a, 2001b) are interesting for two
Businesses’ investment in equipment and software should continue to grow at a
healthy pace in the coming year, driven by rising demand for products and services, the
continuing need to replace or update existing equipment, strong corporate balance sheets,
and the low cost of financing, at least for those firms with access to public capital
markets. Rising sales and increased business confidence should also lead firms to expand
payrolls. However, investment in structures will likely remain weak.
This morning I have reviewed the outlook, the Federal Reserve’s response, and its
policy options for the future should the recovery falter or inflation decline further.
In sum, the pace of recovery in output and employment has slowed somewhat in
recent months, in part because of slower-than-expected growth in consumer spending, as
well as continued weakness in residential and nonresidential construction. Despite this
recent slowing, however, it is reasonable to expect some pickup in growth in 2011 and in
The study finds that young women are ready and willing to participate in holistic
programs that respect their cultural backgrounds and build strong futures for themselves,
their families and their communities. Programming and supports need to encompass
both young womenís practical daily needs and their strategic long term needs, for both
are equally important. This has several of implications for how CED is delivered in inner-
city Winnipeg. It finds that a strong social safety net is a key support to economic
development efforts with young women.
We think this book is unique in that it uses a novel and logical approach to present
discussions of this topic from three general perspectives: scientific, social, and
economic, and the integration within these important areas. We think this book is
somewhat different than other environmental management books since we offer a
more balanced view of the topic – many of the books available today concentrate
primarily on just one of these three perspectives.
The scientific world has changed. For nearly two centuries after Newton, his ideas held sway, and found
widespread adoption in many other disciplines. Subsequent advances in the sciences – from Einstein’s
relativity thinking to quantum physics – have since replaced the Newtonian world-view in many disciplines. In
particular, a more recent revolution in the scientific community looks set to finally change traditional manage-
ment – the new science of complexity.
Change is a common feature of the IT world. It is
important that effective control procedures are in
place to ensure that only authorised changes are
made to IT systems. Not only is there scope for the
accidental or deliberate inclusion of unauthorised
code (the so called Trojan horse or time bomb) but
change involves a degree of risk and it is necessary
to ensure, for example, that the right version of
software is actually implemented.
A rough assessment of the importance of engineering activities that are not covered by
R&D expenditure, as collected by the OECD, can be derived from Figure 6.1.
Among the services supplied to clients there are two groups: technical counselling and the
development of software. These tasks are not classified as R&D. However, they
contribute to product innovation and comprise activities in the case of counselling
necessary to initiate engineering based on the final specifications of a client’s
Chapter 3 - Critical systems. The learning objectives for this chapter include: To explain what is meant by a critical system where system failure can have severe human or economic consequence; to explain four dimensions of dependability - availability, reliability, safety and security; to explain that, to achieve dependability, you need to avoid mistakes, detect and remove errors and limit damage caused by failure.
Computer programs may be categorized along functional lines. The main functional categories are system software and application software. System software includes the operating system which couples computer hardware with application software. The purpose of the operating system is to provide an environment in which application software executes in a convenient and efficient manner. In addition to the operating system, system software includes utility programs that help manage and tune the computer. If a computer program is not system software then it is application software.
Iwant to thank Pamela van Giessen and Jennifer MacDonald of John
Wiley & Sons for allowing me to share my work. I would also like to
thank Cindy Cromwell, Mike Felix, Sarah Neis, and Joanna Pak from
RealTick Software—what a great team! I also extend my sincere gratitude
to Glen Larson and Peter Kilman from Genesis Software for testing my theories
and for helping me to develop my trading library on their software.