Ecosystem control

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  • This book began its evolution in 1999 when the British Antarctic Survey, where I worked at the time, began a new research programme on the management of marine ecosystems. This programme concentrated upon the krill-based ecosystem at SouthGeorgia which has been the subject of almost continuous study since the Discovery Expeditions in the 1920s. Latterly, international efforts to understand the dynamics of this ecosystem and the wider Southern Ocean have been coordinated by the Commission for the Conservation of AntarcticMarine Living Resources (CCAMLR)....

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  • Two hundred years ago, Lewis and Clark led their “Corps of Discovery” on an unprecedented expedition to explore the vast dimensions of the nation’s longest and largest river basin—the Missouri. Their central charge was to seek a water route to the Pacific Ocean to support commerce and development. Since those early days, the Missouri River and its tributaries have occupied a unique place in United States history.

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  • This report is a product of the Panel to Review the Critical Ecosystem Studies Initiative—a panel organized by the National Research Council (NRC) in response to congressional concerns that the restoration of the greater Everglades ecosystem be supported by the best possible science. The Critical Ecosystem Studies Initiative (CESI) has been the primary investment by the U.S. Department of the Interior to provide scientific information to advise restoration decision-making and to guide its own land management responsibilities for South Florida ecosystem restoration.

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  • The structures and functionality of the human component in terms of society, economy, and rights among others should be such that they self-enforce and promote the persistence of the structures and functionality of the natural components—such as the ecosystem, biodiversity and biogeochemical cycles—and vice versa Cabezas et al. (2005).

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  • For much of history, few things have mattered more to humans than their relations with soil. This is evidenced by a rich historical literature on aspects of soil management and soil fertility, dating back to texts of ancient civilizations of the Middle East, the Mediterranean, China, and India (see McNeill and Winiwarter 2004).

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  • The book deals with several aspects of soil erosion, focusing on its connection with the agricultural world. Chapters' topics are various, ranging from irrigation practices to soil nutrient, land use changes or tillage methodologies. The book is subdivided into fourteen chapters, sorted in four sections, grouping different facets of the topic: introductive case studies, erosion management in vineyards, soil erosion issue in dry environments, and erosion control practices.

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  • The living organism which will be deeply affected are shredders, which feed on coarse sedimentary detritus, and collector-gatherers, which feed on fine sedimentary detritus, were the macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups are most adversely affected. Furthermore, during the industrial process, high amount of hydrofluoric acid (HF) are used to separate different sandy materials which are subsequently used for manufacturing glass at industrial plants. Therefore, high concentration of fluoride ion and suspended inorganic matter discharged by the industrial into the study site....

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  • Pesticides are divided to insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, acaricides and nematocides according to the organisms that they affect. There are various forms of insecticides; most are repellants or insect growth regulators used in agriculture, public health, horticulture or food storage. It is evident that insecticides have been used to boost food production to a considerable extent and to control disease vectors.

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  • Picocyanobacteria are a diverse and widespread group of photosynthetic prokaryotes and belong to the main group of primary producers (Castenholz & Waterbury. 1989; Rippka, 1988). Picoeukaryotes, meanwhile, are a diverse group that is widely distributed in the marine environment, and they have a fundamental role in aquatic ecosystems because of their high productivity. Like bacteria, marine viruses are thought to play important roles in global and small-scale biogeochemical cycling.

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  • The last few years have witnessed tremendous changes in the syllabi of environmentally related courses at Advanced Level and in tertiary education. Moreover, there have been major alterations in the way degree and diploma courses are organised in colleges and universities. Syllabus changes reflect the increasing interest in environmental issues, their significance in a political context and their increasing relevance in everyday life.

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  • Chapter 15 Ecological Applications at the Level of Population Interactions: Pest Control and Harvest Management 15.1 Introduction Humans are very much a part of all ecosystems. Our activities sometimes motivate us to drive towards extinction the species we identify as pests, to kill individuals of species we harvest for food or fiber while ensuring the persistence of their populations.

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  • Flow cytometry in our studies contributes to better understanding of prokaryotic roles in the Adriatic Sea as a separate ecosystem and as an important part of the Mediterranean Sea. Studies of prokaryotic community by flow cytometry in the eastern part of Adriatic Sea started in year 2003. The first studies were carried out for purposes of comparing two direct counting methods for bacterioplankton (Šantić et al., 2007). The accuracy of epifluorescence microscopy (EM) was assessed against direct counts made by flow cytometry (FCM).

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  • This book is a compilation of 29 chapters focused on: pesticides and food production, environmental effects of pesticides, and pesticides mobility, transport and fate. The first book section addresses the benefits of the pest control for crop protection and food supply increasing, and the associated risks of food contamination.

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  • SECTION III COMMUNITY ECOLOGY SPECIES CO-OCCURRING AT A SITE INTERACT TO VARIOUS degrees, both directly and indirectly, in ways that have intrigued ecologists since earliest times. These interactions represent mechanisms that control population dynamics, hence community structure, and also control rates of energy and matter fluxes.

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  • The sensory networks that transduce information starting with the capture of a photon into a suite of downstream responses are well known. Historically these pigments were postulated to control various aspects of plant growth and development, particularly germination, phototropic movements and the transition between vegetative and reproductive growth. Long before the genes and proteins were identified and characterized, a tremendous body of work produced evidence of their activities and effects on physiology. Light quality effects on germination were examined by Lewis H.

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  • Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to protect and utilise natural resources, control environmental pollution, improve environmental quality to enable healthy ecosystems and comfortable habitation of humans. It is based on multiple disciplines including geology, hydrology, biology, chemistry, physics, medicine, engineering, management, economics, law, etc.

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  • Foreword for Cary Conference X, “Ecosystem Function in Heterogeneous Landscapes.” Among the most difficult problems in the life sciences is the challenge to understand the details of how ecosystems/watersheds/landscapes function. Yet, the welfare of all life, not just the human species, depends upon the successful functioning of diverse and complicated ecosystems, each with various dimensions and compositions.

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  • These accounts measure the capacity or potential of ecosystems to deliver ecosystem services in a sustainable way. Typical indicators are Landscape Ecosystem Potential (LEP), Green Accessible Landscape Infrastructure (GALI) and Rivers Ecosystem Potential (REP).

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  • The DSS will enable examination of existing conditions, forecasting of future conditions, and simulation of alternatives that will be ecologically sustaining and socially desired. The DSS will address watershed, water quality, water quantity, groundwater and ecosystem restoration needs at the small watershed, major watershed, tributary river, and main stem Minnesota River reach levels of spatial scale. The DSS will enable forecasting future conditions.

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  • The ARIES methodology is based on explicit conceptualizations (ontologies: Villa, Athanasiadis et al. 2009) that lay out first of all a novel vision of ES, based on the breakdown into individual benefits, each of which is modeled independently, then linked to the others. Domain ontologies in ARIES result from a large-scale expert consensus. Artificial intelligence techniques (machine reasoning, pattern recognition) examine source data and extract from the ontologies models that best represent the situation at hand.

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