Ecosystem dynamics

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  • Large herbivores are, and have for a long time been, among the major drivers for forming the shape and function of terrestrial ecosystems. These animals may modify primary production, nutrient cycles, soil properties, fire regimes as well as other biota. Some large herbivore species/populations are at the edge of extinction and great effort is being made to save them. Other species/populations are under discussion for reintroduction. Still other species occur in dense populations and cause conflicts with other land use interests.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về hóa học được đăng trên tạp chí hóa hoc quốc tế đề tài : Review of Serengeti III: human impacts on ecosystem dynamics edited by ARE Sinclair, Craig Packer, Simon Mduma and John M Fryxell

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  • Tham khảo sách 'insect ecology an ecosystem approach', nông - lâm - ngư, nông nghiệp phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Plant species that invade an alien area and outgrow the native vegetation, establishing and increasing their own territory, often lead to negative economic, environmental, and social impacts. Even native species can behave like invasive species by their exponential spread. Similarly, not all non-native species are invasive. Many alien invasive species, however, do threaten the health and integrity of our terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

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  • England’s fisheries in 1871, Congress created the U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries (Hobart 1995). The first appointed Commissioner, Spencer Baird, initiated marine ecological studies as one of his first priorities. According to Baird, our understanding of fish “... would not be complete without a thorough knowledge of their associates in the sea, especially of such as prey upon them or constitute their food....” He understood that the presence or absence of fish was related not only to removal by fishing, but also to the dynamics of physical and chemical oceanography.

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  • Challenges to sustaining the productivity of oceanic and coastal fisheries have become more critical and complex as these fisheries reach the upper limits to ocean harvests. In addition, it is now clear that we are managing interactive and dynamic food webs rather than sets of independent single-species populations.

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  • The Current State and Trends assessment presents the findings of the Condition and Trends Working Group of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. This volume documents the current condition and recent trends of the world’s ecosystems, the services they provide, and associated human well-being around the year 2000. Its primary goal is to provide decision-makers, ecosystem managers, and other potential users with objective information and analyses of historical trends and dynamics of the interaction between ecosystem change and human well-being.

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  • Conserving biodiversity and the ecosystem services that they provide is part of the larger objective of promoting human well-being and sustainable development. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) 2005 has brought about a fundamental change in the way that scientists perceive the role and value of biodiversity, and recognizes the dynamics and linkages between people, biodiversity and ecosystems. Human activities have direct and indirect impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems, which in turn affects the ecosystems services that they provide, and ultimately human well-being.

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  • From February 11 to 13, 2001, at the Lodge at Snowbird ski resort in the Wasatch Mountains of Utah, 17 people met to talk, ski, relax, and try to find common ground. What emerged was the Agile Software Development movement. Representatives from Extreme Programming (XP), Scrum, the Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM), Adaptive Software Development (ASD), Crystal Methods, Feature-Driven Development (FDD), Pragmatic Programming, and others sympathetic to the need for an alternative to document-driven, rigorous software development processes convened....

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  • This book began its evolution in 1999 when the British Antarctic Survey, where I worked at the time, began a new research programme on the management of marine ecosystems. This programme concentrated upon the krill-based ecosystem at SouthGeorgia which has been the subject of almost continuous study since the Discovery Expeditions in the 1920s. Latterly, international efforts to understand the dynamics of this ecosystem and the wider Southern Ocean have been coordinated by the Commission for the Conservation of AntarcticMarine Living Resources (CCAMLR)....

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  • What makes populations stabilize? What makes them fluctuate? Are populations in complex ecosystems more stable than populations in simple ecosystems? In 1973, Robert May addressed these questions in this classic book. May investigated the mathematical roots of population dynamics and argued-counter to most current biological thinking-that complex ecosystems in themselves do not lead to population stability.

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  • This chapter includes contents: Population dynamic: S/J curve, introduced species (example: Rabbits and American Chestnut), predator- prey and host-parasite dynamics, population equilibrium, evolution, succession, living beyond our means.

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  • The study of wetland plants has been of interest to botanists for many years, but the need to identify and understand these plants has expanded dramatically since the 1970s. At that time, ecologists began to make known the vital role that wetlands play in our landscapes. The image of wetlands has shifted from that of mosquito-ridden wastelands to natural areas of critical importance. Because the field of wetland ecology has expanded, so has the study of the plants that thrive there, and their role in ecosystem dynamics.

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  • Chapter 10 The Population Dynamics of Predation 10.1 Introduction: patterns of abundance and the need for their explanation We turn now to the effects of predation on the population dynamics of the predator and its prey, where even a limited survey of the data reveals a varied array of patterns.

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  • Clojure is a practical, general-purpose language that offers expressivity rivaling other dynamic languages like Ruby and Python, while seamlessly taking advantage of Java libraries, services, and all of the resources of the JVM ecosystem. This book helps you learn the fundamentals of Clojure with examples relating it to the languages you know already, in the domains and topics you work with every day. See how this JVM language can help eliminate unnecessary complexity from your programming practice and open up new options for solving the most challenging problems. ...

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  • 7 Ecosystems have complex dynamics – disturbance and decay 7.1 THE NORMALITY OF DISTURBANCE Up to this point, the focus of this book has been on growth and development processes in ecosystems. In fact, these are most important features of ecosystem dynamics and they provide the origins of various emergent ecosystem properties.

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  • 6 Population Dynamics POPULATIONS OF INSECTS CAN CHANGE DRAMATICALLY IN SIZE OVER relatively short periods of time as a result of changes in natality, mortality, immigration, and emigration. Under favorable environmental conditions, some species have the capacity to increase population size by orders of magnitude in a few years.

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  • SECTION III COMMUNITY ECOLOGY SPECIES CO-OCCURRING AT A SITE INTERACT TO VARIOUS degrees, both directly and indirectly, in ways that have intrigued ecologists since earliest times. These interactions represent mechanisms that control population dynamics, hence community structure, and also control rates of energy and matter fluxes.

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  • T he impetus to produce this book came in a brief phone call in 1998. Chuck Crumly, of Academic Press, called with an invitation and a deadline. Either The Ecology of Fishes on Coral Reefs, published in 1991, would be allowed to lapse into out-of-print status, or I would agree to produce a second edition. Looking back on all the work, I suspect it might have been wiser to say, "Let her lapse." But I didn't.

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  • 10 Community Dynamics COMMUNITY STRUCTURE CHANGES THROUGH TIME AS SPECIES abundances change, altering the network of interactions. Short-term (e.g., seasonal or annual) changes in community structure represent responses to environmental changes that favor some species or affect interaction strength.

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