Ecosystem goods

Xem 1-20 trên 29 kết quả Ecosystem goods
  • Ecosystems provide a wide variety of marketable goods, fish and lumber being two familiar examples. However, society is increasingly recognizing the myriad functions—the observable manifestations of ecosystem processes such as nutrient recycling, regulation of climate, and maintenance of biodiversity— that they provide, without which human civilizations could not thrive. Derived from the physical, biological, and chemical processes at work in natural ecosystems, these functions are seldom experienced directly by users of the resource.

    pdf290p phoebe75 01-02-2013 26 7   Download

  • Ecotoxicological models have been applied increasingly to perform chemical risk assessments since the first models of this kind emerged about 25 years ago. The first ecotoxicological models were applied to very specific cases — for instance, cadmium contamination of Lake Erie or mercury contamination of Mex Bay, Alexandria. The models were inspired by the experience gained in ecological modeling and therefore contained good descriptions of ecological processes. Slightly later, the so-called fate models emerged, which were first developed by McKay and others.

    pdf303p crazy_sms 10-05-2012 56 22   Download

  • In  the  past,  environmental  goods  and  services were  seen  as  having  limited  economic  importance.  Now, environmental issues and activities pervade every aspect of our economic life and performance  and  are  subject  to  challenging  national  and  international  targets,  strict  monitoring  regimes  and  ongoing  discussion  and  debate  in  the  media.  As  understanding  of  environmental  challenges  has  grown, so too has appreciation of the size of the market and the associated business opportunities.

    pdf79p dangsuynghi 15-03-2013 19 8   Download

  • If the UK environmental employment baseline  level grows  in  line with projected annual growth rates  (see Table 3 below), then, potentially, an additional 400,000 jobs could be created over the next eight  years ‐ representing a 45%  increase on today’s  level. This  is a rough estimate based on the growth  in  market  value, where  employment  levels  are  calculated  on  a  pro  rata  basis.

    pdf58p dangsuynghi 15-03-2013 29 6   Download

  • Dualism is a dominant theory of life that considers reality to be a balance between two independent and fundamental principles: good and evil, mind and matter, nature and nurture. In the same manner we see the thread of dualism run through the ecology of parasitism: they can generate diversity but cause extinction, they may castrate a host but increase its growth rate, and they can stimulate an immune response but at the same time encourage a secondary chronic infection.

    pdf232p phoebe75 01-02-2013 32 4   Download

  • There is a commonly held myth in our society that anything that is “natural” is good, wholesome, and healthful, whereas anything that is “synthetic” is bad, toxic, and harmful. The mere mention of the word chemical is enough to strike terror into the heart of any food faddist. This attitude is, at best, naïve and, at worst, dangerous.

    pdf354p phoebe75 01-02-2013 40 12   Download

  • This is an introductory textbook on mathematical ecology bridging the subdisciplines of population ecology and ecosystem ecology. The expected reader is you: a beginning graduate student, advanced undergraduate student, or someone who thinks of themselves as a student all their lives, with a working knowledge of basic calculus and basic ecology. While this is intended as a stand-alone text, the level is such that once you have read through it, you will be able to read more advanced texts and monographs such as Ågren and Bosatta (1998) and Kot (2001) with greater depth.

    pdf344p phoebe75 01-02-2013 24 9   Download

  • The growth of Aquaculture and its future role as a food supplier to human society has environmental, social and economic limitations, affecting marine ecosystems and socio-economic scales from local to global. These are close links with human health requirements and societal needs for various goods and services provided by marine ecosystems. This book shows this broad spectrum of dependencies of the future growth of aquaculture and highlights both relevant problems and expectations.

    pdf330p phoebe75 01-02-2013 21 9   Download

  • There  is,  of  course,  some  potential  overlap within  these  sub‐sectors,  and  some  activities  could  fall  within more  than  one  of  the  three main  categories.  For  example,  Additional  Energy  Sources  could  potentially fall within the Renewable Energy sector, but has been include within Emerging Low Carbon  because  it  includes  mainly  new  energy  sources  and  those  that  are  still  in  development  (such  as  hydrogen fuel cells).

    pdf120p dangsuynghi 15-03-2013 25 8   Download

  • If green accounting is to be taken seriously, the accounts must not be only concerned with the ways in which services are weighted (the missing prices problem) but also with the definition of services themselves. Moreover, it is desirable to define ecosystem service units in a way that is methodologically and economically consistent with the definition of goods and services used in the conventional income accounts.

    pdf29p taisaovanchuavo 26-01-2013 17 7   Download

  • Due to the growing importance of forest goods and services an increasing amount of information is being collected on the ecological and also on the socio-economic value of goods and services provided by forests. However, much of this information is collected and presented at incompatible scales or it has been classified differently. In order to make comparative ecological or economic analysis possible, standardized frameworks for assessing the importance of forest goods and services are needed.

    pdf35p dangsuynghi 15-03-2013 22 6   Download

  • Air pollution does not only damage the air; it also damages environments on Earth’s surface and their inhabitants. Plants and animals are harmed by air pollution. Sometimes it is the pollutants themselves that cause damage. Other times pollutants combine and change the resources that plants and animals depend upon such as water, soil, and nutrients. The impacts of air pollution are diverse and numerous. Air pollution can have serious consequences for the health of human beings, and also severely affects natural ecosystems.

    pdf147p saimatkhauroi 01-02-2013 22 5   Download

  • Forests ecosystems provide a multiplicity of goods and services of crucial ecological, social and economic importance for the sustainability of our society. Forest goods and services represent the benefits that human populations derive, directly or indirectly, from forest ecosystems functions (MEA 2005) and are therefore an inherently anthropogenic concept, since it is the presence of human beings as valuing agents that enables the translation of the basic ecological structures and processes of forests into value-laden entities. ...

    pdf38p dangsuynghi 15-03-2013 25 5   Download

  • Depending on the purpose of the classification, various factors and criteria are considered (e.g. example the ecosystem functions, the end-use of the product, type of users, economic value, property regimes, management characteristics, etc.). However, none of the classification schemes are universal, and all of them have advantages or disadvantages, depending on the context of their application. Bearing in mind the FORVALUE objectives and its main accent on the non-market forest goods and services, four classification approaches, were considered and are describe in more detail.

    pdf0p dangsuynghi 15-03-2013 23 5   Download

  • Our precious planet is in peril. The economic overshoot of ecological thresholds is seemingly the order of the day. Yet, it is clearly not enough to lament the excessive economic use and human domination of ecosystems and sit as if in sackcloth and ashes while romanticizing the days gone by.

    pdf400p phoebe75 01-02-2013 26 4   Download

  • The Study Team will select a set of ecosystem services that will be affected by watershed management, aquatic ecosystem, and water quality restoration. The model system will be used to simulate the effects of management measures on the production of ecosystem services. Rules for the spatial effects by number, geographic location, and area (as appropriate) of application of management measures on the production of ecosystem services will be developed.

    pdf29p tay_thi_le 21-02-2013 25 4   Download

  • There are 4 million miles of roads in the United States. One hundred years ago, roads were primarily unpaved and had half the number of miles of the present U.S. road system. As the system grew, roads became wider and more complex structurally to provide for more and heavier traffic. New construction technology and greater structural stability were needed to improve the road system. All phases of road development—from construction and use by vehicles to maintenance—affect physical and chemical soil conditions, water flow, and air and water quality.

    pdf44p camchuong_1 11-12-2012 18 3   Download

  • Many of the traditionally sound cultural practices recommended for conventional agriculture are also employed in organic production. In fact, organic agriculture has been referred to as “good farming practice without using synthetic chemicals.”2 For example, planned crop rotations, which have multiple benefits in terms of soil building, plant health, pest management, and enhancing biodiversity, are required in annual organic cropping systems.

    pdf12p cao_can 02-01-2013 32 2   Download

  • Wetland ecosystems are a natural resource of global significance.Historically, their high level of plant and animal (especially bird) diversity is perhaps the major reason why wetland protection has become a high priority worldwide, supported by international agreements, such as the Ramsar Convention and the International Convention of Biological Diversity (Fig. 1.1).

    pdf365p huetay_1 28-02-2013 34 18   Download

  • The soil ecosystem provides services such as carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, water purification, provisioning of industrial and pharmaceutical goods, and a mitigating sink for chemical and biological agents. However, the soil is subject to various degradation processes. Its relation with the hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere makes the interacting processes even more complex. Moreover, as the soilhuman interactions increase, threats, leading to a series of impacts on soil health, become more important....

    pdf406p cucdai_1 14-10-2012 48 17   Download

CHỦ ĐỀ BẠN MUỐN TÌM

Đồng bộ tài khoản