Ecosystem models

Xem 1-20 trên 58 kết quả Ecosystem models
  • Scientific perception of nature relies on a process of transforming data to information, and then information into understanding. Data consist of observations and measurements and information is data organized according to some ontology, i.e. some set of assumptions about what entities exist and how they should be classified. Understanding is a model in the investigator’s mind that describes how the entities relate to each other, a model created in the investigator’s mind as a result of thinking.

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  • Ecotoxicological models have been applied increasingly to perform chemical risk assessments since the first models of this kind emerged about 25 years ago. The first ecotoxicological models were applied to very specific cases — for instance, cadmium contamination of Lake Erie or mercury contamination of Mex Bay, Alexandria. The models were inspired by the experience gained in ecological modeling and therefore contained good descriptions of ecological processes. Slightly later, the so-called fate models emerged, which were first developed by McKay and others.

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  • Over the past several years, scientists, public health officials, and policy makers have become increasingly interested in understanding how the emergence and spread of infectious diseases could be affected by environmental factors, particularly variations in climate. In September 1995 the Institute of Medicine/ National Academy of Sciences and the National Science and Technology Council held a Conference on Human Health and Global Climate Change.

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  • This book provides an example of the successful and rapid expansion of bioengineering within the world of the science. It includes a core of studies on bioengineering technology applications so important that their progress is expected to improve both human health and ecosystem. These studies provide an important update on technology and achievements in molecular and cellular engineering as well as in the relatively new field of environmental bioengineering.

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  • This book provides an example of the successful and rapid expansion of bioengineering within the world of the science. It includes a core of studies on bioengineering technology applications so important that their progress is expected to improve both human health and ecosystem. These studies provide an important update on technology and achievements in molecular and cellular engineering as well as in the relatively new field of environmental bioengineering.

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  • Understanding and quantitative describing of marine ecosystems requires an integration of physics, chemistry and biology. The coupling between physics, which regulates for example nutrient availability and the physical position of many organisms is particularly important and thus cannot be described by biology alone. Therefore the appropriate basis for theoretical investigations of marine systems are coupled models, which integrate physical, chemical and biological interactions.

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  • For several years, innovation has been omnipresent and part of strategic matters. The word “innovation” is in the headlines of reports, articles and business media, and is also the subject of events, projects, think-tanks, clubs and blogs. Several forums on social networks are devoted to its various facets. This is a global phenomenon. In the 20 th Century, innovation was a subject for research centers of large companies and public laboratories.

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  • Weather natural hazards, the environment and climate change are of concern to all of us. Especially, it is essential to understand how human activities might impact the nature. Hence, monitoring, research, and forecasting is of the outmost importance. Furthermore, climate change and pollution of the environment do not obey national borders; so, international collaboration on these issues is indeed extremely important.

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  • Overharvesting has led to severe reductions in the abundance and range of nearly every large vertebrate species that humans have ever found worth pursuing. These megafaunal reductions, dating in some cases from first contact with early peoples (Martin 1973), are widely known. In contrast, remarkably little is known about the ecological consequences of megafaunal extirpations. Whales and whaling are part of that legacy. Most people know that large whales have been depleted, but little thought has been given to how the depletions may have influenced ocean ecosystems.

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  • Emission inventories play a dual role in global air pollution issues. Firstly, they can be used directly to establish the more important source categories, to identify trends in emissions and to examine the impact of different policy approaches. Secondly, emission inventories are used to drive atmospheric models applied to assess the environmental consequences of changing trace gas emissions and concentrations and to provide advice to policy makers. This second role contributes to the atmospheric modelling community being an important user of emission inventories.

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  • Estuaries are areas of high productivity, crucial in the life histories of many fish, invertebrates, and birds, for example, and the sustainability of estuarine biodiversity is vital to the ecological and economic health of coastal regions. On the other hand, estuarine ecosystems are exposed to toxic anthropogenic effluents transported by rivers from remote and nearby conurbations and industrial and agricultural concerns.

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  • From the early explorers onwards, visitors to the Arctic and to Antarctica have commented with great interest on the presence of lakes, wetlands, and fl owing waters. These environments encompass a spectacular range of conditions for aquatic life, from dilute surface melt ponds, to deep, highly stratifi ed, hypersaline lakes.

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  • The purpose of this collection is to present some of the diversity of ideas and studies about species that can be classifi ed as “ecosystem engineers.” As with any developing concept, we fi nd disagreement about the meaning and usefulness of this term in the literature and among ourselves. The idea for the book arose in a National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS) working group designed to develop models of ecosystem engineering species.

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  • What makes populations stabilize? What makes them fluctuate? Are populations in complex ecosystems more stable than populations in simple ecosystems? In 1973, Robert May addressed these questions in this classic book. May investigated the mathematical roots of population dynamics and argued-counter to most current biological thinking-that complex ecosystems in themselves do not lead to population stability.

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  • The outputs of an ARIES session have numerous practical uses for conservation and economic development planning. Notably, they can show which regions are critical to maintaining the supply and flows of particular benefits for specific beneficiary groups. By prioritizing conservation and restoration activities around sources and sinks for particular services, benefit flows may be maintained or increased. Similarly, focusing development or extractive resource use outside these regions can prevent degradation of benefit flows.

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  • This Chapter addresses SMEs that are qualified to perform complementary manufacturing activities as producers, subcontractors or suppliers. They are used to participate in different supply chains taking the form of networks where every node manages in turn its own supply chain. More precisely, there are at least three main models (or viewpoints) to take into account:  Medium-large company and its supply chain members. When issuing an order the medium-large company should select the most convenient supplier depending on factors like cost, lead time, capacity, supply conditions, distance.

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  • The world is changing quickly, and our models of learning, communicating, and acting must change accordingly. Throughout society we must rethink basic notions of how we define and accomplish our goals in a complex and changing environment, including how we prepare ourselves for professional careers. This book is an effort in that direction for students in natural resource management. It is a response to some of the challenges we perceive students will face in the early twenty-first century, and it is a practice field on which they may begin to develop their skills....

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  • The Earth’s polar regions (see Figure 1.1) are ecologically, economically, and, increasingly, geopolitically important; they are particularly vulnerable to the speed and magnitude of climate change and have significant potential to influence the global climate system (Oreskes, 2004; IPCC, 2007a; Anderegg et al., 2010). Climate models and observational data have shown that polar regions have warmed at substantially higher rates than the global mean (IPCC, 2007c).

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  • This report is in response to a request from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council to review the Gulf of Alaska Ecosystem Monitoring and Research Program (GEM). To ensure that the GEM program is based on a science plan that is robust, far-reaching, and scientifically sound, the Trustee Council asked the National Academies to serve as an independent advisor. The Academies appointed a special committee and charged it to review the scope and content of the program as it evolved.

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  • Sven Erik Jørgensen is professor of environmental chemistry at the Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences. He has doctorates in engineering from Karlsruhe University and sciences from Copenhagen University. He has been editor in chief of Ecological Modelling since the journal started in 1975. He is chairman of the International Lake Environment Committee. He has edited or authored 58 books in Danish and English and written 300 papers of which twothirds have been published in peer-reviewed international journals.

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