This project has its origins in a conference on ecosystem services that Gretchen
Daily of the Stanford Biology Department, Geoff Heal of the Columbia Business
School, and Peter Raven, Director of the Missouri Botanical Gardens,
organized at the Gardens in 1998. Having become intrigued by the concept of
ecosystem services, which at the time was still relatively new even within ecological
economics, the three of us eagerly attended and immediately noticed
that, besides J. B., only one other lawyer was present in the audience of more
than a hundred.
Conserving biodiversity and the ecosystem services that they provide is part of the
larger objective of promoting human well-being and sustainable development.
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) 2005 has brought about a
fundamental change in the way that scientists perceive the role and value of
biodiversity, and recognizes the dynamics and linkages between people,
biodiversity and ecosystems. Human activities have direct and indirect impacts
on biodiversity and ecosystems, which in turn affects the ecosystems services that
they provide, and ultimately human well-being.
Ecosystems provide a wide variety of marketable goods, fish and lumber
being two familiar examples. However, society is increasingly recognizing the
myriad functions—the observable manifestations of ecosystem processes such
as nutrient recycling, regulation of climate, and maintenance of biodiversity—
that they provide, without which human civilizations could not thrive. Derived
from the physical, biological, and chemical processes at work in natural ecosystems,
these functions are seldom experienced directly by users of the resource.
The MA, which focused on ecosystem change and
the impacts of such change on human well-being, included
a set of sub-global assessments at multiple
spatial scales, in addition to the global assessment.
This was one of the innovations of the MA compared to
other international assessments, which usually focus on
global or regional scales alone. The global and sub-global
assessments analyzed ecosystem services and human wellbeing
from different perspectives and with different stakeholders
The focus of the MA is on ecosystem services (the benefits people
obtain from ecosystems), how changes in ecosystem services have
affected human well-being in the past, and what role these
changes could play in the present as well as in the future. The
MA is an assessment of responses that are available to improve
ecosystem management and can thereby contribute to the various
constituents of human well-being. The specific issues addressed
have been defined through consultation with the MA users.
As rates of deforestation and land degradation, and losses of biodiversity and
ecosystem services, continue to rise globally, the international community is faced
with the challenge of finding land use interventions that can mitigate or reduce the
impact of these environmental issues. Agroforestry, the integration of trees in farming
systems, has the potential for providing rural livelihoods and habitats for species
outside formally protected lands, connecting nature reserves, and alleviating resourceuse
pressure on conservation areas.
Compared to other ecosystems, wetlands have received an exceptional amount of
attention. Wetlands are valuable as sources, sink and transformers of a multitude
of chemical, biological and genetic materials. They stabilize water supplies, clean
polluted waters, protect shorelines, and recharge groundwater aquifers. They have
increasingly become recognized for their unique ecological functions in the
environment and are the focus of increased research by scientists and study
programs by schools, communities, and nature centers.
This book addresses the significant environmental changes experienced by
high latitude and high altitude ecosystems at the beginning of the 21st century.
Increased temperatures and precipitation, reduction in sea ice and
glacier ice, the increased levels of UV-radiation and the long-range transported
contaminants in arctic and alpine regions are stress factors that
challenge terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
If green accounting is to be taken seriously, the accounts must not be only concerned with
the ways in which services are weighted (the missing prices problem) but also with the definition
of services themselves. Moreover, it is desirable to define ecosystem service units in a way that
is methodologically and economically consistent with the definition of goods and services used
in the conventional income accounts.
The Current State and Trends assessment presents the findings of
the Condition and Trends Working Group of the Millennium
Ecosystem Assessment. This volume documents the current condition
and recent trends of the world’s ecosystems, the services
they provide, and associated human well-being around the year
2000. Its primary goal is to provide decision-makers, ecosystem
managers, and other potential users with objective information
and analyses of historical trends and dynamics of the interaction
between ecosystem change and human well-being.
The idea for this book stems from a meeting sponsored by the European Union,
organized by N. van Breemen, and held in Doorweerth at the end of 1991. At this
meeting a large number of European scientists discussed the different issues
related to the accumulation and decomposition of organic matter in terrestrial
ecosystems. One of the objectives was to gather scientists from various disciplines
(biologists, chemists, ecologists, agriculturalists) to pool their different disciplinary
approaches and come up with a common perspective for future research on
soil organic matter.
Tham khảo sách 'conserving and valuing ecosystem services and biodiversity economic, institutional and social', khoa học tự nhiên, công nghệ sinh học phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
Agricultural development is widely recognized as crucial for poverty reduction. At
the same time, agricultural expansion and ever more intensive practices are widely
recognized for their contribution to ecosystem degradation. Less well recognized is
that, in many cases, agriculture offers the potential to generate both poverty
reduction and better environmental outcomes. The studies presented in this volume
look at one policy tool that may address this gap: payments for environmental
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment was called for by United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan in 2000 in his
report to the UN General Assembly, We the Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century. Governments
subsequently supported the establishment of the assessment through decisions taken by three international
conventions, and the MA was initiated in 2001.
Following the consensus points described above, we identify the specific benefits and beneficiaries that flow from the typical MA ecosystem services categories. We also identify the spatial data layers needed to map the location of these beneficiaries. In order to enable the ARIES modelling paradigm, all benefits must meet five requirements.
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment was carried out between 2001 and
2005 to assess the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being
and to establish the scientific basis for actions needed to enhance the conservation
and sustainable use of ecosystems and their contributions to human
The idea for this book arose during the planning phases of an International Conference
in Edmonton, Canada in July 2004 entitled “The Science of Changing Climates
— Impacts on Agriculture, Forestry and Wetlands.” The conference was organized
jointly by the Canadian Societies of Animal Science, Plant Science and Soil Science
with support from Natural Resources Canada/Canadian Forest Service because they
saw climate change as one of the most serious environmental problems facing the
It was not until the eighteenth century that the subject of this book, the pollination
services of bees, began to be understood and valued. Nevertheless, the association
between man and bees has been long and close, and dates from at least 2400 BC.
Beekeeping with the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, was a well-developed craft in
ancient Egypt during the fi fth dynasty of the Old Kingdom.
The editors would like to thank the governments of Canada (idrc, International
Development Research Centre) and Switzerland (Swiss Agency
for Development and Cooperation) for their generous fi nancial support of
Urban ecology in Berlin has been developing over the past 350 years, from garden
floras and wild floras of castles and ruins to the Graduate Research Training Group
780 “Perspectives in Urban Ecology”. This program has brought together universities
and scientific institutes from all over Berlin.
Since the beginning, urban ecology in Berlin has included approaches from
biology and geography, leading to the current interdisciplinary work documented
in this summarizing publication.