Ecotoxicological models have been applied increasingly to perform chemical risk assessments since the first models of this kind emerged about 25 years ago. The first ecotoxicological models were applied to very specific cases — for instance, cadmium contamination of Lake Erie or mercury contamination of Mex Bay, Alexandria. The models were inspired by the experience gained in ecological modeling and therefore contained good descriptions of ecological processes. Slightly later, the so-called fate models emerged, which were first developed by McKay and others.
It is intended that this book be suitable for a variety of engineers and ecologists, who
may wish to gain an introduction to the rapidly growing field of ecological and
environmental modelling. An understanding of the fundamentals of environmental
problems and ecology, as presented for instance in the textbook Principles of
Environmental Science and Technology is assumed. Furthermore, it is assumed that
the reader has either a fundamental knowledge of differential equations and matrix
calculations or has read the Appendix, which gives a brief introduction to these
Later elaborations on the mechanisms of repression versus dissociation posited that
they corresponded to various views of the self-one that is vertically organized (such as in the
case of repression) versus one that is horizontally aligned, with areas of incompatibility
separated by dissociation (Mitchell & Black, 1995). Many of Janet’s ideas presented above
received corroboration later from both clinical observations and neurobiological
investigations and have subsequently been incorporated in contemporaneous pathogenetic
models of dissociative disorders.