The effect of polyaspartate (PASP) on the performance of the lead-acid negative plate has been investigated. It was established that this polymer additive controls the crystallization process of lead sulphate and modiﬁes the shape and size of PbSO4 crystals. The addition of PASP to the negative paste and to the electrolyte improves the utilization of the negative active material and reduces the internal resistance of the negative plates.
This paper describes the corrosion behaviour of the positive and negative electrodes of a lead–acid battery in 5 M H2SO4 with binary additives such as mixtures of phosphoric acid and boric acid, phosphoric acid and tin sulphate, and phosphoric acid and picric acid. The effect of these additives is examined from the Tafel polarisation curves, double layer capacitance and percentage of inhibition efﬁciency.
The effect of lignin, which is an important additive for the negative electrode in lead±acid batteries, is studied on lead electrodes in sulfuric acid by means of potentiostatic transient measurements and in situ electrochemical atomic force microscope (EC-AFM) observations. During oxidation of the electrodes, it is con®rmed that the current transition in electrolyte with 20 ppm lignin gives a broad, hill-like curve, while that in electrolyte without lignin is a sharp peak.
The concentrations and charge strength of "spectator“ or non-reacting electrolytes The tendency to form precipitates will be decreased with increasing ionic strength 1) interactions (but not necessarily reactions) of the reactant species with other charged species 2) interactions of the charged product species with the spectator ions.
H2O + H2CO3 H3O+ + HCO3Ka1 increases with increasing ionic strength, so the solution becomes more acidic.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: The effectiveness of hand-disinfection by a flow water system using electrolytic products of sodium chloride, compared with a conventional method using alcoholic solution in an ..
Over the past decade the topic of energy and environment has been acknowledged
among many people as a critical issue to be solved in 21st century since
the Kyoto Protocol came into effect in 1997. Its political recognition was put
forward especially at Heiligendamm in 2007, when the effect of carbon dioxide
emission and its hazard in global climate were discussed and shared universally
as common knowledge.
The formation of gaseous O2 at the anode of an electrolytic cell containing an aqueous electrolyte solution is the most frequent electrode reaction. It has immense practical implication because it always accompanies the electrolytic production of H2 in water electrolyzers, the cathodic deposition of metals in metal electrowinning processes, and the application of a cathodic current in cathodic protection operations, and it takes place at the negative pole of metal–air power sources upon recharging. ...
After completing this unit, you should be able to: Describe the normal characteristics of the cellular environment and the key homeostatic mechanisms that strive to maintain an optimal fluid and electrolyte balance; outline pathophysiological alterations in water and electrolyte balance and list their effects on body functions; describe the treatment of patients with particular fluid or electrolyte imbalances.
In the quest for knowledge, it is not uncommon for researchers to push the limits
of simulation techniques to the point where they have to be adapted or totally new
techniques or approaches become necessary. True multiscale modeling techniques
are becoming increasingly necessary given the growing interest in materials and
processes on which large-scale properties are dependent or that can be tuned by their
low-scale properties. An example would be nanocomposites, where embedded nanostructures
completely change the matrix properties due to effects occurring at the
Current Flow in an Electrochemical Cell:
Thermodynamic arguments permit the feasibility of overall cell reactions to be predicted, but give no information on rates. To understand the latter it is necessary to consider the effects on various parts of the cell of forcing the cell voltage to assume a value different from that of the equilibrium potential Eeq (V) or electromotive force (emf). In the example of Figure 1, the cell contains hydrochloric acid as aqueous electrolyte and it divides into two compartments by a semipermeable membrane.
Intravenous nutrition (IVN), also known as parenteral nutrition (PN),
involves the administration of nutrients, electrolytes, minerals and fluid
directly into patients’ veins. It is used in patients whose gastrointestinal
absorption of food and/or fluids is inadequate, unsafe or inaccessible.
Infusing a mixture of nutrients and fluid, however, is not without risk.
Management of delirium begins with treatment of the underlying inciting factor (e.g., patients with systemic infections should be given appropriate antibiotics and underlying electrolyte disturbances judiciously corrected). These treatments often lead to prompt resolution of delirium. Blindly targeting the symptoms of delirium pharmacologically only serves to prolong the time patients remain in the confused state and may mask important diagnostic information.
Relatively simple methods of supportive care can be highly effective in treating patients with delirium.
SECRETORY CAUSES Secretory diarrheas are due to derangements in fluid and electrolyte transport across the enterocolonic mucosa. They are characterized clinically by watery, large-volume fecal outputs that are typically painless and persist with fasting. Because there is no malabsorbed solute, stool osmolality is accounted for by normal endogenous electrolytes with no fecal osmotic gap.
Side effects from regular ingestion of drugs and toxins are the most common secretory causes of chronic diarrhea.