Tendons are known to have a profound impact on the overall function of the
musculoskeletal system in their role as a structural link and force transmitter between
muscle and bone. Their unique viscoelastic response under tension allows efficient use and
recycling of stored energy during stretch involved in locomotion, modulating joint position
control, and providing protection from muscle injuries through reduction of mechanical
oscillation and shock.
Addressing the health needs of women living with HIV/AIDS presents special challenges, including that of
screening for cervical cancer. These women are at increased risk of HPV infection, and thus, of developing
an AIDS-defining condition.
While the current document cannot review this topic in detail,
studies are available with information on whether there is a need for specific screening guidelines for HIV-
This book presents and discusses current research in the field of biology, with a particular
emphasis on biological factors and their role in health and well-being. Topics discussed
include the biotechnology of cyanobacteria; the reasons why glucose is the principal source of
energy for living beings; post-transcriptional effects of estrogen on gene expression;
sialylation mechanism in bacteria and the evolution biology of health and disease clinical
medicine from a Darwinian perspective.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) acting as an estrogen at the level of the hypothalamus to downregulate hypothalamic luteinizing hormone (LH) production results in decreased elaboration of testosterone by the testicle. For this reason, orchiectomy is equally as effective as moderate-dose DES, inducing responses in 80% of previously untreated patients with prostate cancer but without the prominent cardiovascular side effects of DES, including thrombosis and exacerbation of coronary artery disease.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học ngành y học tạp chí Medical Sciences dành cho các bạn sinh viên ngành y tham khảo đề tài: Iodine Alters Gene Expression in the MCF7 Breast Cancer Cell Line: Evidence for an Anti-Estrogen Effect of Iodine...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Expression of aromatase and estrogen receptor alpha in chondrosarcoma, but no beneficial effect of inhibiting estrogen signaling both in vitro and in vivo...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về hóa học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học quốc tế đề tài : Progesterone receptor does not improve the performance and test effectiveness of the conventional 3-marker panel, consisting of estrogen receptor, vimentin and carcinoembryonic antigen in distinguishing between primary endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinomas in a tissue microarray extension study
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Wertheim cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: mRNA expression profiles show differential regulatory effects of microRNAs between estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer...
Chapter 27 - The reproductive system (part c), the main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Establishing the ovarian cycle, establishing the ovarian cycle, hormonal interactions during a 28-day ovarian cycle, uterine (menstrual) cycle, effects of estrogens,...
Fourth, our analysis of consultation patterns for the management of specific pregnancy-
related conditions suggests pregnant women are making discretionary decisions regarding
whom to consult depending on their immediate health concerns. Chiropractors are frequently
consulted for back pain and sciatica, massage therapists consulted more commonly for neck
pain, and naturopaths and acupuncturists more likely to be consulted for pregnancy-related
nausea. Women are consulting with CAM practitioners most commonly for management of
Gprotein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) has previously been
described tobe important in steroid-mediatedgrowthand to
inhibit cell proliferation. Here we investigated whether the
effect of GPR30 on cell growth is dependent on steroid
hormone receptors. We stably introduced GPR30 in
immortalizednormalmammaryepithelial (HME) cellsusing
retroviruses for gene delivery. GPR30 inhibited the growth
and proliferation of the cells. They expressed glucocorticoid
receptor, but not estrogen or progesterone receptor....
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has a protective role against epithelial-derived carcinomas; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. We deter-mined the effect of DHEA on cell proliferation, the cell cycle and cell
death in three cell lines derived from human uterine cervical cancers
infected or not with human papilloma virus (HPV).
Contraceptive methods can be divided into two subgroups as hormonal and non-hormonal.
Hormonal contraceptives include combined-oral contraceptives, progestin only pills,
hormonal implants, progestin releasing intrauterine systems, depomedroxyprogesterone
acetate injections, and vaginal rings. Non-hormonal contraceptive methods include male and
female condoms, copper intrauterine device, tubal ligation and vasectomy of the companion.
Combined oral contraceptives are a widely used and well accepted form of contraception.
An intensive weight loss program in Slovenia including
behavioral, psychological, cognitive and physical ele-
ments has shown promising long-term results on 48 sub-
jects . Median weight loss of completers when they
left the program was 11.5 kg. At least 5 years later, 13 of
them still maintained the reduced weight.
It is important to note that only participants who had
successfully completed at least 4 months of treatment
were included in the analysis.
Estrogen acts as a proconvulsant in several animal models of epilepsy, including amygdalal
kindling and pentylenetetrazol administration in ovariectomized rats (Hom and
Buterbaugh, 1986). Estrogen induces the formation of new excitatory synapses in the CA1
region of the hippocampus; and further, this estrogenic induction involves activation of Nmethyl-
Daspartate (NMDA) receptors (McEwen, 2002). Increasing the complexity of
hippocampal synaptic density is likely a mechanism for the proconvulsant activity of
Depression is more common in women than in men and
is known to be mediated by serotonin receptor levels
[43,63]. Specifically, depression is linked to decreased
density of serotonin receptors and decreased efficacy of
serotonin in the brain. The increased risk, timing of onset,
and effectiveness of treatment of depression in women
may be mediated by estrogen's effect on serotonin recep-
The current literature documents a wide range of individ-
ual effects of both estrogen and serotonin, which have
been successfully used to explain both normal and patho-
logical processes. E2, for example, initiates the develop-
ment of the female reproductive system, influences the
deposition of body fat, regulates the production of prolac-
tin and other hormones, and increases sodium and water
retention . Independent of estrogen, serotonin regu-
lates urination, influences the production of cerebrospi-
nal fluid, and relaxes vascular smooth muscle .
A: high-fat diet can increase the risk of many cancers, including endometrial cancer.
Because fatty foods are also high-calorie foods, a high-fat diet can lead to obesity, which
is also an endometrial cancer risk factor. Some doctors think that fatty foods may have a
direct effect on estrogen levels, which can increase risk, too.
Exercise protects against endometrial cancer. Studies found that women who exercised
more had a lower risk of this cancer, while one study showed that women who spent
more time sitting had a higher risk....
The choice of a specific oral contraceptive should be predicated on the progestational component, as progestins vary in their suppressive effect on SHBG levels and in their androgenic potential. Ethynodiol diacetate has relatively low androgenic potential, whereas progestins such as norgestrel and levonorgestrel are particularly androgenic, as judged from their attenuation of the estrogen-induced increase in SHBG. Norgestimate exemplifies the newer generation of progestins that are virtually nonandrogenic.
COMBINED ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES Mechanism of action
The combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills currently available in the UK are shown in Table 2. They combine an estrogen (ethinylestradiol (EE) in all cases but one) with one of seven progestogens. Aside from secondary contraceptive effects on the cervical mucus and to impede implantation, COCs primarily prevent ovulation. This makes the method highly effective in ‘perfect’ use (Table 1), but it removes the normal menstrual cyle and replaces it with a cycle that is user-produced and based only on the end-organ, i.e. the endometrium.