Xem 1-20 trên 168 kết quả Effective alternatives
  • Bringing together the recent and relevant contributions of over 125 scientists from industry, government, and academia in North America and Western Europe, Alternative Toxicological Methods explores the development and validation of replacement, reduction, and refinement alternatives (the 3Rs) to animal testing. Internationally recognized scientists present what has been accomplished thus far in developing acceptable alternatives to traditional animal toxicological assessment and provide potentially new initiatives.

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  • Much has happened since the first edition of this book appeared in 2002. Despite the continuing paucity of robust scientific evidence to support most of its constituent therapies, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) remains popular with clients who appreciate the holistic approach and have a belief in its effectiveness.

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  • The initial reason for writing Complementary and Alternative Medicine: An Evidence- Based Approach was the need to examine research evidence and claims purported by advocates, clinicians, and researchers of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) regarding its effectiveness. Both of us had previous experience with certain of these therapies since we had worked with American Indians who used alternative spiritual- indigenous medical approaches to health-related problems. Joseph Jacobs, a Mohawk, grew up using many of these healing practices.

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  • The use of complementary medicine has mushroomed over the last decade. Along with the increased popularity there’s been an increase in the number of practitioners who practise complementary therapies either as their primary discipline or as a ‘complement’ to their own discipline, such as nursing or medicine. With an increasing acceptance by the public and by mainstream healthcare professionals, practitioners of complementary medicine are being asked to provide evidence of the effectiveness and safety of their therapies.

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  • With this edition of Biomedical Ethics Reviews we commence a somewhat new focus for the series. Building on its solid tradition of exploring and debating pressing bioethical issues of the day, this series will now also examine the real-life implications of these issues for patients and the health care system in which care is delivered. With each topic, attention will be focused not only on the theoretical and policy aspects of ethical dilemmas, but also on the clinical dimensions of these challenges, and effects on the patient–physician relationship....

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  • AD Nil NISTRATORS’ PERCEPTIONS OF INTERNAL AUDITING ROLES AND EFFECTIVENESS IN TEXAS AND BIG TWELVE PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES These coordination failures are less likely in markets with more interjurisdictional competition, as in these markets there are always alternative districts that are relatively similar in the peer group offered, and parents are able to select effective schools without paying a steep price in reduced peer quality.

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  • INFORMATION SYSTEM QUALITY : AN EXAMINATION OF SERVICE-BASED MODELS AND ALTERNATIVES If both peer group and school effectiveness are important to parents, then, the Tiebout mechanism rewards effective administrators only when there are many districts. Model (3) suggests that in this case the test score gap between high- and low-income schools will tend to be larger in markets with a great deal of interdistrict competition than in those with less Tiebout choice. I test for this in the empirical analysis below....

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  • This informative new book explains, in meticulous detail, what is known scientifically about the effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine therapies including nutritional, botanical, homeopathic and psychospiritual for HIV/AIDS. The special research methodology challenges involved in the scientific evaluation of complementary and alternative medicine are discussed in depth, and the authors offer valuable new insights into the complex pathogenesis of AIDS.

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  • In what follows, we construct a simple nancial system involving entities with interlocking balance sheets and use these techniques to model the spread and probability of contagious default following an unexpected shock, analytically and numerically. Unlike the generic, undirected graph model of Watts (2002), our model provides an explicit characterisation of balance sheets, making clear the direction of claims and obligations linking nancial institutions. It also includes asset price interactions with balance sheets, allowing the effects of asset-side contagion to be clearly delineated.

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  • The paper shows that movement or equivalent computational structure-changing operations of any kind at the level of logical form can be dispensed with entirely in capturing quantifer scope ambiguity. It offers a new semantics whereby the effects of quantifier scope alternation can be obtained by an entirely monotonic derivation, without typechanging rules.

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  • We find that the process measures of the quality of the prenatal and child care processes are positively and significantly associated with child growth. Structural quality and access variables, however, are not associated with child growth. These findings suggest that investments in improving prenatal and child care process quality in existing facilities in Indonesia may be an effective way to address conditions that result in a child’s inability to reach full physical potential. This paper is organized in four sections.

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  • News stories are typically rich in NEs and therefore, comparable news corpora can be expected to contain NETEs (Klementiev and Roth, 2006; Tao et al., 2006). The large quantity and the perpetual availability of news corpora in many of the world’s languages, make mining of NETEs a viable alternative to traditional approaches. It is this opportunity that we address in our work. In this paper, we detail an effective and scalable mining method, called MINT (MIning Named-entity Transliteration equivalents), for mining of NETEs from large comparable corpora. ...

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  • A brief overview of some available alternative systems for shore stabilization and beach erosion control is presented. Special attention is paid to artificial reefs and geosystems. Geosystems have gained popularity in recent years because of their simplicity in placement, cost effectiveness and environmental aspects.

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  • This popular book helps readers understand the difference between blindly accepting information and critical analysis and synthesis. It teaches how to react rationally to alternate points of view and develop a foundation for making personal choices about what to accept and what to reject in what we see and hear. Focusing on the question-asking skills and techniques necessary for evaluating different types of evidence, this book addresses critical thinking as a generic skill with many applications while emphasizing values and moral reasoning as an integral part of critical thinking.

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  • The purpose of this paper is to help customer survey process stakeholders understand some of the inherent tradeoffs of alternative survey methods. The scope addresses factors including size of the customer population, strengths and weaknesses of alternate methods, survey response rates and resource constraints. When taken with the information needs of the organization, these factors converge to suggest appropriate survey methods and designs that will facilitate an effective customer satisfaction measurement (CSM) process. ...

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  • Herbs and traditional medicines are being extensively used for healthcare in almost all the countries since times immemorial. Ancient religious texts are replete with references on the use of natural products with medicinal properties. Because of local beliefs and practices and also from cost considerations herbal medicines remain a popular mode of treatment in the developing countries. Even in the industrialised society the rising cost of prescription drugs and ensuing side effects of the treatment make it highly attractive to use the traditional medicine particularly for minor ailments....

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  • Planning involves selecting a course of action and specifying how the action will be implemented. The first step in planning is to identify the various alternatives. Next, the alternative that does the best job of furthering the organization’s objectives is selected. Management’s plans are usually expressed in budgets. Typically, budgets are prepared annually under the direction of the controller, who is the manager of the accounting department.

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  • The field effect transistor was actually conceived before the more familiar bipolar transistor. Due to limited technology and later the rapid rise of the bipolar device it was not pursued until the early 1960Õs as a viable semiconductor alternative. At this time further investigation of the field effect transistor and advances in semiconductor process technology lead to the types in use today.

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  • This volume is part of a multiyear research program on Behavioral Responses to Taxation that is being conducted under the auspices of the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). This project draws together researchers with a wide range of interests in tax policy issues. The development and mainte- nance of the NBER TAXSIM program, a detailed computer algorithm for com- puting household tax liabilities under actual and various alternative tax re- gimes, is one of the centerpieces of this research project. Many of the research studies...

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  • Electromagnetism is fundamental to the whole of electrical and electronic engineering. It provides the basis for understanding the uses of electricity and for the design of the whole spectrum of devices from the largest turbo-alternators to the smallest microcircuits. This subject is a vital part of the education of electronic engineers. Without it they are limited to understanding electronic circuits in terms of the idealizations of circuit theory.

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