Medical practitioners and health care educators must be continually vigilant of the
growing and ever-changing health issues related to girls and women who lead an active
lifestyle and participate in sports and exercise. There have been landmark legislations
that have changed the social perception that girls and women not only can, but should
be physically active. With any changing social milieu, there are evolving health issues
associated with the journey.
Although not specifically referred to as quick starting, previous Faculty guidance has advised
that contraceptive methods can be started at any point in the menstrual cycle if a
practitioner is reasonably certain that the woman is not currently pregnant (Box 1)8 or at risk
of pregnancy. As sperm may be viable in the female reproductive tract for up to 7 days,
health professionals should consider if a woman is at risk of becoming pregnant as a result of
unprotected sexual intercourse (UPSI) within the last 7 days.
Depression is more common in women than in men and
is known to be mediated by serotonin receptor levels
[43,63]. Specifically, depression is linked to decreased
density of serotonin receptors and decreased efficacy of
serotonin in the brain. The increased risk, timing of onset,
and effectiveness of treatment of depression in women
may be mediated by estrogen's effect on serotonin recep-
Chapter 27 - The reproductive system (part c), the main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Establishing the ovarian cycle, establishing the ovarian cycle, hormonal interactions during a 28-day ovarian cycle, uterine (menstrual) cycle, effects of estrogens,...
In most women, the menstrual cycle continues for at least 40 years
from puberty. Between the ages of 45 and 55, the levels of hormones
change; the menstrual cycle becomes less regular and eventually stops.
This stage, called menopause, marks the point at which a female is no
longer capable of reproducing. Menopause is a normal occurrence in all
women; however, the effects of menopause vary widely from one woman
to another. In men, by contrast, sperm production continues throughout
life, although the number of healthy sperm likely declines with age....
COMBINED ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES Mechanism of action
The combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills currently available in the UK are shown in Table 2. They combine an estrogen (ethinylestradiol (EE) in all cases but one) with one of seven progestogens. Aside from secondary contraceptive effects on the cervical mucus and to impede implantation, COCs primarily prevent ovulation. This makes the method highly effective in ‘perfect’ use (Table 1), but it removes the normal menstrual cyle and replaces it with a cycle that is user-produced and based only on the end-organ, i.e. the endometrium.