Bringing together the recent and relevant contributions of over 125 scientists from industry, government, and academia in North America and Western Europe, Alternative Toxicological Methods explores the development and validation of replacement, reduction, and refinement alternatives (the 3Rs) to animal testing. Internationally recognized scientists present what has been accomplished thus far in developing acceptable alternatives to traditional animal toxicological assessment and provide potentially new initiatives.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: The efficacy of computer reminders on external quality assessment for point-of-care testing in Danish general practice: rationale and methodology for two randomized trials
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học 'Respiratory Research cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài:" The safety and efficacy of inhaled dry powder mannitol as a bronchial provocation test for airway...
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Alternative way to test the efficacy of swine FMD vaccines: measurement of pigs median infected dose (PID50) and regulation of live virus challenge dose
The mission of the International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL) is to ensure all
students have access to a world-class education and quality online learning opportunities that
prepare them for a lifetime of success.
The Online Learning Definitions Project is designed to provide states, districts, online programs,
and other organizations with a set of definitions related to online and blended learning in order to
develop policy, practice, and an understanding of and within the field.
This argument forms an important facet of what is usually referred to as parental
investment (PI) theory, a subset of life history theory.
To test the hypothesis that parents experiencing resource constraints will invest
diﬀerentially in oﬀspring, and that the patterns of investment accord with PI theory,
a number of health, nutrition and social variables were measured for all children
between the ages of 5 and 15 living in a Yanomamö village on the Upper Orinoco
River in southern Venezuela.
Screening is performed earlier and more frequently when there is a strong
family history. Randomized, controlled trials have documented that fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) confers a 15 to 30% reduction in colon cancer mortality. Although randomized trials have not been performed for sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy, well-designed case-control studies suggest similar or greater efficacy relative to FOBT.
In the future, Pap smear frequency may be influenced by HPV testing and
the HPV vaccine.
It happens all the time: a pharmaceutical or biotechnology company will spend ten years and hundreds of millions of dollars on a drug candidate that looks spectacular in animal models of a disease, only to see it fail during clinical trials, either because of unexpected adverse reactions in a small number of patients or a surprising lack of efficacy. For every drug that is approved, on average more than 6,000 new chemical substances are created. Only seven of these ever end up being tested in humans, and only three make it to Phase III clinical trials, the final step before...
Only one randomized trial, the Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea for Sickle Cell Anemia
(MSH Study), tested the efficacy of hydroxyurea in adults with sickle cell anemia, with six
additional analyses either based on this trial or on followup studies. The significant
hematological effects of hydroxyurea after 2 years (as compared to the placebo arm) included a
small mean increase of 0.6 g/dl in total hemoglobin and a moderate absolute increase in fetal
hemoglobin of 3.2 percent.
The risk of arterial disease and microvascular complications in people with diabetes are known
to be related to the extent of hyperglycaemia with time. While the lifestyle, oral agent, and
injectable therapies discussed in this guideline can improve blood glucose control, their efficacy
is limited, as the underlying pathogenesis of diabetes worsens with time. As symptoms are not
a reliable guide to blood glucose control in people on therapy, it is important to have an
accurate means of measuring blood glucose control over time, to enable decision-making.
The efficacy of a screen-and-treat program is influenced not only by accuracy of the screening test but also by
the ability of the treatment, in this case cryotherapy, to eliminate CIN2+ lesions identified by screening. While
cryotherapy was highly successful in this trial, eliminating 75 to 77 percent of CIN2+ lesions, this was lower than
previously reported 85 to 90 percent cure rates for clinical trials in developed countries and for less rigorous
studies in developing regions.
In contrast, only three percent of women who had a negative HPV DNA test for 13 high risk types developed
CIN3+ within the timeframe of the study, indicating that frequent screening of these women may be
unnecessary. The researchers found that although infection with some types, such as HPV 53, 56, 59, and 68,
were prone to persist for 2 years, they did not lead to lesions during the entire follow-up period.
A study in Italy18
investigated the efficacy of HPV DNA testing for CIN and cervical cancers and supported the use
of stand-alone HPV DNA testing as...
In the TB Control Programme in India, routine screening for HIV infection was not being carried out in tuberculosis patients till recently. Hence, many patients were being treated for tuberculosis under programme conditions without knowledge of the presence or absence of concurrent HIV infection. However, in high HIV prevalence States, there is a provision for routine referral of all TB patients for voluntary HIV- counselling and testing.
The current RNTCP regimens in India are highly effective in the management of tuberculosis patients without HIV infection.
This paper presents a new approach based on Equivalent Pseudowords (EPs) to tackle Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) in Chinese language. EPs are particular artificial ambiguous words, which can be used to realize unsupervised WSD. A Bayesian classifier is implemented to test the efficacy of the EP solution on Senseval-3 Chinese test set. The performance is better than state-of-the-art results with an average F-measure of 0.80. The experiment verifies the value of EP for unsupervised WSD.