Efficiency benefit

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  • Measures the economic efficiency of the project: if net benefit is positive, the project is a more efficient allocation of resources than the alternative (the world “without” the project).

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  • How Direct Expansion Air-Conditioning Achieves Performance Goals For most of the A / C market, refrigeration-based ( DX ) cooling is the standard, and provides a point of comparison for new technologies. To describe the benefits and improvements of DEVap A / C technology, we must discuss standard A / C. Standard A / C reacts to SHR by cooling the air sensibly and, if dehumidification is required, by cooling the air below the dew point.

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  • Developing a smart grid has become an urgent global priority as its economic, environmental, and societal benefit willbe enjoyed by generations to come. In- formation and communications technologies are at the core of the smart grid vision as they will empower today’s power grid with the capability of supporting two-way energy and information flow, isolating and restoring power outages more quickly, facilitating the integration of renewable energy sources into the grid and empowering the consumer with tools for optimizing their energy consumption....

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  • We have seen how in conducting efficiency benefit-cost analysis we often use market prices, either directly or indirectly, to value or cost project outputs or inputs. We use market prices directly when they are generated by perfectly competitive markets - markets that are not distorted by monopoly, monopsony, taxes or regulations.

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  • Motivated by the adverse effects of the financial crisis, in 2010 the Commission Directorate General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion and the EIB made each available EUR 100m to the benefit of micro-enterprises and self-employment, with a particular emphasis on social inclusion and groups with limited access to the traditional banking system.

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  • decreasing their value added. Successful, cost-effective investment into energy efficiency technologies and practices meets the challenge of maintaining the output of a high quality product while reducing production costs. This is especially important, as energy efficient technologies often include “additional” benefits, such as increasing the productivity of the company. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry, making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs.

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  • For a typical family that moves from group to individual coverage with identical benefits, annual premiums will rise by more than $2,000.43 The biggest losers in the individual market are those who are less healthy or coping with a chronic illness. Two-thirds of respondents in a recent survey said they found it difficult or impossible to find affordable coverage in the individual market.

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  • European society and the European economy do not yet exploit the full potential for resource efficiency. Much recyclable waste is either exported or sent to landfill. A lack of long-term frameworks holds back planning and investment, most obviously on a climate and energy framework beyond 2020, but also on long term sustainable use of key resources such as air, soil, energy, water, fish and biomass. At the same time, such frameworks can help to galvanise the innovation needed to exploit the potential of the transition to a low-carbon economy in areas like transport, energy and agriculture....

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  • A widely deployed replacement for repeatered E1, HiGain® E1 brings the highest level of performance, ease of deployment and cost efficiency to the HDSL market. The HiGain E1 product family consists of line units, remote units, doublers and enclosures that are optimized to make HDSL less costly to deploy. HiGain E1 maintains full compatibility and interoperability with legacy HiGain products and systems, allowing you to protect your current investment in HDSL, while benefiting from our latest technology developments....

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  • We ¯nd that when the hypothetical benchmarks are recognized as being unavailable for investment, there need not exist close substitutes for them in the universe of mutual funds. For an investor who believes completely in the accuracy of the Fama-French model and precludes managerial skill, the perceived maximum Sharpe ratio is only 66 percent of what could be achieved by direct investment in that model's benchmarks. For a believer in the Carhart four-factor model, the corresponding value is 54 percent.

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  • In the implementation of our strategy we focus on the following ESG factors: Environmental: For us this means that we focus on climate change. We believe that climate change issues are very important and that climate change (related) policy will lead to more focus on, for instance, energy efficiency and urban regeneration and that it will lead to shifting tenant and investor preferences; Social: For us this means that we focus on human rights and work conditions.

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  • One of the key features that enables the Greenplum Database to scale linearly and achieve such high performance is its ability to utilize the full local disk I/O bandwidth of each system. Typical configurations can achieve from 1 to more than 2.5 gigabytes per second sustained I/O bandwidth per machine. This rate is entirely scalable, and overall I/O bandwidth can be increased linearly by simply adding nodes without any concerns of saturating a SAN/shared-storage backplane.

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  • The best practice today is to read data into the SAS environment for processing. For highly repeatable processes, this might not be efficient because it takes time to transfer the data and resources are used to temporarily store in the SAS environment. In some cases, the results of the SAS processing must be transferred back to the DBMS for final storage, which further increases the cost. Addressing this challenge can result in improved resource utilization and enable companies to answer business questions more quickly. ...

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  • The dromedary’s water intake is through drinking and the water in the feed. The need for drinking depends on environmental temperature and humidity and the water content of the feed. Under range conditions if water is readily available, camels may drink daily or may not for several days. The main water losses are from evaporative cooling of the skin, in urine and faeces, and even in these functions the conservation of water can be very efficient. During exercise physiology studies, obvious sweating was not observed.

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  • The official definition of poverty for the U.S. population uses money income before taxes and does not include capital gains or noncash benefits (such as public housing, Medicaid, and SNAP). The definition is based roughly on historical estimates of the portion of an average household’s income required to purchase a “minimally nutritious diet” (about 30% in the early 1960s).

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  • An inert gas is bubbled through a 5 mL water sample contained in a specially-designed purging chamber at ambient temperature. The purgeables are efficiently transferred from the aqueous phase to the vapor phase. The vapor is swept through a sorbent trap where the purgeables are trapped. After purging is completed, the trap is heated and backflushed with the inert gas to desorb the purgeables onto a gas chromatographic column. The gas chromatograph is temperature programmed to separate the purgeables which are then detected with a mass spectrometer....

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  • A key consideration for policymakers, then, is whether the trade-off between efficiency and financial stability argues for policies that reflect a preference for certain cross-border banking structures. This paper examines the relative advantages and disadvantages of different organizational structures for cross-border banking groups both from the point of view of the financial groups and of the home/host authorities.

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  • One of the keys to using the logframe successfully is understanding what the definitions mean in operational terms, and in particular the relationship between Results and Project Purpose. Although managers are accountable for delivering the Results, they cannot control the behaviour of the target group. Achievement of the Project Purpose requires a ‘beneficiary response’ whereby the target group uses project services and in doing so derives a benefit for themselves. However, this does not mean that project managers are not responsible for achieving the Project Purpose.

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  • In addition to these incentives, the Department is currently developing a new radio licence fee model, based on spectrum consumption and relative spectrum scarcity. Under the proposed new model, licensees who adopt spectrum efficient technologies would benefit from lower licence fees. The new fee model would therefore encourage voluntary early migration to more spectrum efficient technologies. The provisions of the present plan will be applicable within congested areas (i.e. areas of intensive mobile use, where applicants are denied access to spectrum).

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  • Recently, much academic and regulatory interest has been concentrated on the problem of high-yield, junk bond default. Arguably, corporate bonds have defaulted for many reasons, including factors specific to the individual issuing firm, variables corresponding to the industry in which it operates, and macroeconomic forces affecting the business cycle. Individual factors include the firm's leverage, industry type, agency problem, riskiness of the investment decisions, managerial integrity, efficiency and investment savvy together with institutional operating costs.

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