It is widely accepted that irrigation allows for the increase and stability in agrarian
yields, being a necessary tool to support food supplies and necessities for certain raw
materials in the world. However, irrigated agriculture is also considered the most
significant fresh water consumer and one of the main causes of pollution, degradation
and depletion of natural resources. These impacts are primarily related to changes in
the water cycle, salinization of agricultural soils, and salinization and pollution of
water resources due to the use of agrochemicals....
Economic development, population growth, and environmental pollution evolving in many parts of the world are placing great demands on existing resources of fresh water and reflecting a "water crisis". Resource management, efficient utilization of the water resources, and above all water purification are all alternatives to resolve the water crisis. Purification approaches include traditional approaches that have lasted for several centuries without major modifications as well as new innovative approaches....
This book is one of the most comprehensive and up-to-date books written on Energy Efficiency. The readers will learn about different technologies for energy efficiency policies and programs to reduce the amount of energy. The book provides some studies and specific sets of policies and programs that are implemented in order to maximize the potential for energy efficiency improvement. It contains unique insights from scientists with academic and industrial expertise in the field of energy efficiency collected in this multi-disciplinary forum....
The Energy Efficiency Manual is your primary tool for improving energy efficiency and reducing
your utility costs. It is a comprehensive, step-by-step guide that is designed to help you manage
your activities effectively and with confidence.
The core of the Energy Efficiency Manual is 400 energy efficiency “Measures.” The Measures
have a standard format that makes it easy to organize them into an optimum efficiency program for
your facility. Refer to the inside of the front cover to learn how to exploit the Measures....
The objective of this study is to assist public authorities to identify and address the future challenges of urban water supply, sanitation, and flood management in cities. In order to do that, this report uses the conceptual framework of Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) as a holistic set of planning and management tools incorporating all components of the urban water cycle to help develop efficient and flexible urban water systems in the future. The future of water in African cities: why waste water? argues that a new approach to urban water management is needed in Africa.
Measurement of efficiency started with Farrell (1957) who, following Debreu (1951)
and Koopmas (1951), proposed a division of efficiency into two components: technical
efficiency, which represents a firm’s ability to produce a maximum level of output from
a given level of inputs, and allocative efficiency, which is the ability of a firm to use
inputs in optimal proportions, given their respective prices and available technology.
The combination of these two measures yields the level of economic efficiency.
After completing this lesson, you should be able to do the following:
Use automatic segment space management
Use manual segment space management
Manage extents and Oracle blocks
Ensure effective use of space
Determine the high-water mark
Describe the use of Oracle block parameters
Recover space from sparsely populated segments
Describe and detect chaining and migration of Oracle blocks
Perform index reorganization
Moisture deficiencies occurring early in the crop cycle
may delay the maturity season and reduce yields.
Shortages later in the season often lower quality, as
well as yields. However, irrigation surplus, especially
late in the season, can reduce both the quality and the
post-harvest life of the crop.
Uneven or surplus irrigation, above the amount
required to replace evapotranspiration, causes nitrate
leaching below the root system and the ability of
the crop to recover from the nitrogen deficiency
Technical staff in the textile industry are the backbone for the industry to run successfully. Management employ adequately qualified technical personnel and allot them to the supervisory jobs, whereas basic control of the raw materials, men, machinery procurement, devising policies etc. is controlled by the top management.
describe environmentally conscious design technique in the field on buildings and
architecture: how to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by
enhancing the energy efficiency, water efficiency, use sustainable (renewable or
recyclables) materials of construction. Section 4 is a collection of articles related to
sustainable agriculture and food security: systems of food production that provide
secure supply to meet the world growing population.
Energy management and conservation are the keys to using fuel
and electrical energy in the most efficient way. Proper energy management
can lead to big savings on the operating costs of a building. If fuel
and electrical energy consumption are reduced, money will be saved as
a result. Many residential, industrial, and commercial buildings have
already undergone changes that have resulted in the savings of both
energy and money. Any building can be made more energy efficient
when proper energy management procedures are applied....
carbon dioxide recovery systems In the fermentation process, the yeast feeds on the wort to produce carbon dioxide and alcohol. This carbon dioxide can be recovered with closed fermentation tanks and used later in the carbonation process. The fermentation process generates about 8-10 lbs/barrel wort (3-4 kg CO2/hl) (Lom and Associates, 1998). Typical CO2 scrubber operations require 2 kg of water per kg of carbon dioxide (Dell, 2001). A large brewery can become self-sufficient for CO2 if a well-designed plant is installed to recover CO2 from fermentation. The U.S.
Due to their low aqueous solubilities, the PCBs and PAHs lay on the surface of soils and
waters. PCBs and PAHs adsorb strongly to the organic fraction of soils (Girvin & Scott, 1997;
Hiller et al., 2011). Soils contaminated with PCBs and PAHs are transported directly or
indirectly by rivers to the water reservoir and are subsequently converted into the bed
sediments. Therefore, soils could be considered as the primary sinks for these organic
contaminants. PCBs and PAHs are persistent in the environment, resistant to degradation
process, and accumulate in food chain.
SURVIVAL ON LAND POSES SOME SERIOUS CHALLENGES to terrestrial plants, foremost of which is the need to acquire and retain water. In response to these environmental pressures, plants evolved roots and leaves. Roots anchor the plant and absorb water and nutrients; leaves absorb light and exchange gases. As plants increased in size, the roots and leaves became increasingly separated from each other in space. Thus, systems evolved for long-distance transport that allowed the shoot and the root to efficiently exchange products of absorption and assimilation.
THE FORM AND FUNCTION of multicellular organism would not be possible without efficient communication among cells, tissues, and organs. In higher plants, regulation and coordination of metabolism, growth, and morphogenesis often depend on chemical signals from one part of the plant to another. This idea originated in the nineteenth century with the German botanist Julius von Sachs (1832–1897). Sachs proposed that chemical messengers are responsible for the formation and growth of different plant organs.
Lipases (triacylglycerol acylhydrolases, E.C. 188.8.131.52) are ubiquitous enzymes of consid-
erable physiological significance and industrial potential. Lipases catalyze the hydrolysis of
triacylglycerols to glycerol and free fatty acids. In contrast to esterases, lipases are activated
only when adsorbed to an oil–water interface (Martinelle et al., 1995) and do not hydrolyze
dissolved substrates in the bulk fluid. A true lipase will split emulsified esters of glycerine
and long-chain fatty acids such as triolein and tripalmitin. Lipases are serine hydrolases.
Business trips are fairly inflexible and it is often difficult for travelers to select their destinations.
Business travel, often referred to as MICE (Meetings-Incentives-Conferences-Exhibitions), is normally
determined by business opportunities and involvement of the traveler with organisations at the
destination. Perhaps more flexibility can be exercised by travelers attending optional meetings, which
provide benefits but are not strictly essential to their business such as conferences, exhibitions,
incentives, familiarization trips etc (Davidson 1994).
It has often been stated that no two well-designed sewerage schemes are alike, and although this truism is usually applied to inland towns, it applies with far greater force to schemes for coastal towns and towns situated on the banks of our large rivers where the sewage is discharged into tidal waters. The essence of good designing is that every detail shall be carefully thought out with a view to meeting the special conditions of the case to the best advantage, and at the least possible expense, so that the maximum efficiency is combined with the minimum cost. It will...
Spirax Sarco is the recognized industry standard for
knowledge and products and for over 85 years has
been committed to servicing the steam users worldwide.
The existing and potential applications for steam,
water and air are virtually unlimited. Beginning with
steam generation, through distribution and utilization
and ultimately returning condensate to the boiler,
Spirax Sarco has the solutions to optimize steam system
performance and increase productivity to save
valuable time and money.