Women's risk for many diseases increases at menopause, which occurs at a median age of 51.4 years. In the industrialized world, women spend one-third of their lives in the postmenopausal period.
Estrogen levels fall abruptly at menopause, inducing a variety of physiologic and metabolic responses. Rates of cardiovascular disease increase and bone density begins to decrease rapidly after menopause.
In the United States, women live on average about 5 years longer than men, with a life expectancy at birth in 2004 of 80.4 years, compared to 75.2 years in men.
Similarly, in societies where women are engaged in waged or money-
based enterprise, trachoma diminishes their economic capacity.
In addition, trachomatous blindness is an unnecessary sensory loss,
which results in substantial pain and suffering. In aging women,
trachomatous blinding may be compounded by a variety of disabilities,
such as arthritis. But unlike arthritis, trachomatous blinding is easily
Trachoma can be treated in its early stages and subsequent blindness
prevented, but in order to accomplish this, it must be identified and
The Baby Boomer generation is substantially different from earlier generations and policies
need to account for those differences. They will remain active and independent longer than
previous generations; as a group, they have sufficient wealth to manage retirement as no
previous generation has; and they are going to challenge how the elderly are treated and what
should be considered acceptable. Understanding the scope of the challenge is one of the first
steps. The research summarized in this report begins to address this need.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học ngành y học tạp chí Medical Sciences dành cho các bạn sinh viên ngành y tham khảo đề tài: Association of Adiposity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Exercise Practice with the Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Brazilian Elderly Women...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học 'Respiratory Research cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Decline in air pollution and change in prevalence in respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in elderly women...
vast majority of Buddhists also indicated that they meditated during the past month and just over half
indicated they meditated at least several times a week. Elderly women meditate somewhat more
frequently than men. Provincial elders also reported more frequent meditation than those in Phnom Penh.
However older elderly meditate more frequently than younger elderly, a finding that is consistent with the
higher percentage of older elderly who indicate religion is very important for them.
The elderly in India often end up in a state of deprivation and negligence as there is no proper
social security system as in the West (OASIS, 1999). The majority of the elderly work in the
informal sector with low levels of wages and deficient working conditions and this has also
put the aged in a state of deprivation, vulnerability and distress in old age in terms of both
health and economic security (Helpage International, 2002). Empirical studies by different
researchers have shown a gradual decline in the standard of life of the aged with high...
Research has suggested a link between nutritional deficiencies in early (including prenatal)
life, and the development of chronic diseases—cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus,
hypertension, stroke, cancer, and osteoporosis, among others—some decades later (World
Health Organization 2000a, 2000b; Jacoby 2004). A possible link between early nutritional
deficiencies and obesity has also been suggested, and it remains an area of ongoing research
(Pan American Health Organization 2003).
These demographic changes are taking place in
developing countries alongside increasing mobility
and changing family structures. Industrialization is
eroding long-standing patterns of interdependence
between the generations of a family, often resulting
in material and emotional hardship for the elderly.
The family and community networks in many
developing countries that had formerly provided
support to the older generation have been weakened,
and often destroyed, by rapid social and
economic change. The AIDS pandemic is also
significantly affecting the lives of older people.
The transparency of the body beneath the drapery is a clear reference point to the
female reclining figures from the Parthenon pediment sculptures. This is obvious in
Albert Moore’s Beads (1875), which depicts two young women reclining asleep in
different positions on a soft fabric bench with their legs, breasts, nipples and small
folds of their stomachs clearly visible beneath their white diaphanous Greek clothes.
Breasts lose tissue and subcutaneous fat, reducing breast size and fullness. Most of the mammary glands are replaced by fat tissue so make the breast less firm. Nipple may turn in slightly. The area surrounding the nipple (the areola) becomes smaller and may nearly disappear. Lumps are common around the time of menopause. Breast cancer risk increases with age. Women should perform monthly breast self-examinations and should also talk to their health care provider about mammograms (Breast scans).
Changes in the Vision
Aging eyes produce fewer tears.
How well older people make economic decisions is an important issue for social policy.
Since wealth tends to accumulate over one’s lifetime, a large portion is in the hands of older
people. Both long-term trends (increased longevity) and short-term trends (baby booms)
mean that increasing proportions of the population are older and retired. Also, older people
are more likely to vote than young people are, so they may have disproportionate political
The project was carried out in Busia district in Western Province. Women 30 to 39 years old
were the focus of the project, since they were most at risk for treatable, precancerous disease.
The project was implemented in three phases: (1) a preparatory phase from February 2000 to
October 2000, (2) a pilot phase in three divisions from November 2000 to October 2002, and (3)
an expansion phase covering the whole district from November 2002 through March 2004.
Since microfinance began in the early 1970s,
approximately 70 percent of the clients of microfinance
institutions (MFIs) – and often 100 percent – have been
women. The reason for this is deliberate and strategic. It
was soon recognized that women are the best conduit for
ensuring that microfinance confers the greatest possible
benefit on the greatest number of people.
Throughout the world, women are responsible for the
well-being of their families.
The sex distribution in SEC is reasonably close to that in the 1998 census and 2000 DHS. The 1999
Socioeconomic Survey is somewhat out of line with the other sources. Likewise, the age distribution of
older persons in the SEC is quite similar to that in the other sources. The marital status distribution in the
SES for men is also fairly similar to that found in the other three sources but not for women. The SEC
sample has relatively fewer women who are currently married and relatively more who are widowed than
indicated by the census and the...
Since 2005, a dozen of the United States and more than 15 medical specialties have
reported a physician shortage or anticipate one in the next few years. This anticipated
shortage and a worsening of physician distribution are compounded by a
projected increased demand for health care services. Health care of women of all
ages is particularly vulnerable. The obstetrician gynecologist workforce is aging
and is among the least satisfied medical specialists. Primary care physicians such
as family physicians and general internists will be asked to care for more women
who are elderly.
This working paper focuses on the relevance of social, socioeconomic and behavioural
factors on health status and mortality in a longitudinal setting and in a life-course perspective.
First, we identify those factors which determine the health status of people aged 60+ in
Germany. Based on this, our second aim is to find factors which determine transitions from
good general health status, or from the absence of specific diseases, to a bad general health
status or the presence of specific diseases.
Listening to the radio is fairly common among elders although only half do so daily or almost daily and
just over one fourth do not listen to the radio at all. Elders who are men, live in Phnom Penh, or are
younger are more likely to listen to the radio and to listen to frequently than elders who are women, live
in the provinces, or are older. TV watching is somewhat less common than listening to the radio. Two
fifths of Cambodian elders indicate they did not watch TV during the last month while only modestly