General physics 2: Electricity & Magnetism products about Electric Charge and Field (Electric Charges; Coulomb’s Law; Electric Fields; Electric Field of a Continuous Charge Distribution; Motion of Charged Particles in a Uniform Electric Field).
Electricity is an invisible force that is used to transfer
energy into heat, light, intelligence, or motion. Electricity
is explained in terms of electrical charge, potential differ-
ence (or voltage), electrical charge flow (or current), and
resistance to current flow. Figure 1-1 graphically illus-
trates electron flow through a conductor by comparing it
with water flow through a pipe. The normal unit of current
measurement is the ampere, whereas the normal unit of
voltage measurement is the volt. The unit of opposition to
current flow, or resistance, is the ohm...
¾ With the modern knowledge about the structure of matter
we know that electric charges come from elementary
particles: negatively charged electron and positively charged
proton. In nuclei there are also neutron with no charge.
Interaction between charges: two positive charges or two
negative charges repel each other. A positive charge and a
negative charge attract each other. This interaction is called the
static electric interaction.
Magnets are pieces of metal that have the ability to attract other metals. Every magnet has two poles: a north and a south. Much like electrical charges, two similar magnetic poles repel each other; while opposite magnetic poles attract each other. Magnets have a continuous force around them that is known as a magnetic field. This field enables them to attract other metals. Figure 1 illustrates this force using bar and horseshoe magnets.
Lecture Engineering electromagnetics: Coulomb’s law and electric field intensity include all of the following content: Coulomb’s law, electric field intensity, field due to a continuous volume charge distribution, field of a line charge, field of a sheet charge, sketches of fields.
Lecture Electric circuit theory - Basic elements of electrical circuits presents the following content: Circuit element, circuit, series circuit & parallel circuit, voltage, current, charge, flux linkage, power, energy, independent sources.
PSAT is a Matlab toolbox for static and dynamic analysis and control of electric power systems. The PSAT project began in September 2001, while I was a Ph.D. candidate at the Universit´ degli Studi di Genova, Italy. The ﬁrst public a version date back to November 2002, when I was a Visiting Scholar at the University of Waterloo, Canada. I am currently maintaining PSAT in the spare time, while I am working as associate professor at the Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain. PSAT is provided free of charge, in the hope it can be useful and other people...
Electric charge and a measure for the quantity of charge
Any household electrical appliance – be it a light bulb, a motor, or a television set – has two contacts which have to be plugged in to get the device to operate. This common characteristic, that an electrical apparatus must have two wires connecting it to a source of electricity, gave the rise in the eighteenth century to the idea that when an electrical device is working, something is moving through it. That something is called electric charge. When you pull out a plug, turn off a switch, or disconnect...
Scientists still do not know exactly what causes the earth’s magnetic field. In the 16th century, it was believed that a mountain of magnetite (a magnetic mineral) was located at the North Pole and that this mountain caused the earth’s magnetic field. English physician William Gilbert was the first to propose, in 1600, that the earth itself was a massive magnet. Current theories hold that the earth’s magnetic field is created by currents within the liquid outer core of the earth, which is composed mostly of iron.
Metals are used as biomaterials due to their excellent electrical and thermal conductivity and mechanical
properties. Since some electrons are independent in metals, they can quickly transfer an electric charge and
thermal energy. The mobile free electrons act as the binding force to hold the positive metal ions together.
This attraction is strong, as evidenced by the closely packed atomic arrangement resulting in high specific
gravity and high melting points of most metals.
The deﬁnition of voltage as work per unit charge lends itself very conveniently to the introduction of power. Recall that power is deﬁned as the work done per unit time. Thus, the power, P , either generated or dissipated by a circuit element can be represented by the following relationship: Power = Thus, Work Work Charge = = Voltage × Current Time Charge Time (2.9)
The electrical power generated by an active element, or that dissipated or stored by a passive element, is equal to the product of the voltage across the element and the current ﬂowing through ...
Most students of electricity begin their study with what is known as direct current (DC), which is
electricity °owing in a constant direction, and/or possessing a voltage with constant polarity. DC
is the kind of electricity made by a battery (with de¯nite positive and negative terminals), or the
kind of charge generated by rubbing certain types of materials against each other.
As useful and as easy to understand as DC is, it is not the only \kind" of electricity in use.
Some years ago a consortium of enterprises and a university from different European countries and industrial sectors was established
to work together in the development of lighter lead–acid batteries for electrical and conventional vehicles with new innovative materials
and process techniques, with the final goal of increasing the energy density by means of a battery weight reduction. Its main idea was to
substitute the heavy lead alloy grids mechanical support of the active masses and collectors of the current produced during the charge
and discharge reactions.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a technique where the electron-beam is
transmitted through an ultra-thin specimen, interacting with specimen as it passes
through it. An image is formed from the interaction of the electrons transmitted
through the specimen, which is then magnified and focused onto an imaging device,
such as a fluorescent screen, a photographic film, or a charge-coupled device (CCD)
sensor. This technique is capable of imaging at significantly high resolution than the
light microscopes, owing to the small de-Broglie wavelength of electrons....
Part III: Theoretical background 12 Plant nutrients
The elements that plants need to survive are called nutrients. Nutrients are usually adsorbed from the soil solution in the form of ions. Ions are dissolved salts (nutritive salts) that have an electrical charge.
These days, it is impossible to think of an area of knowledge that can keep on
developing without a collaboration in interdisciplinary fields.
Electromotive force is a type of energy per unit of electric charge that is converted
reversibly from chemical, mechanical, or other forms of energy into electrical energy
by a dynamo, battery, electrochemical cells, thermoelectric devices, solar cells,
transformers, and so on.
The theory of electromotive Force is currently one of the most important research
topics within the electrical engineering domain.
Photons interact with matter because matter contains electric charges. The electric field of light exerts forces on the electric charges and dipoles in atoms, molecules, and solids, causing them to vibrate or accelerate. Conversely,
After the ground breaking discovery of electrical charge carrier transport in
polymers in the late 1980s by Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid and Hideki
Shirakawa [1–3], who were awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 2000, the
question arose as to whether organic materials would also find applications as
organic semiconductors. This field really started to attract major attention after
the demonstration of the first organic light emitting device (OLED) in 1987 by
Tang and Van Slyke .
For a battery, the term ‘capacity’ relates to the ‘charge capacity’, i.e., the total amount of electrical charge Q that can be drawn from the device before a speciﬁed cutoff voltage V is reached. In the battery industry, charge capacity is typically measured in ampere-hours (Ah). Practically, the capacity Q is determined as the integral of the discharge current over the discharge time, starting from the fully charged state and ending at the fully discharged state