This book focuses on the basic electrochemical applications of DNA in various areas, from basic principles to the most recent discoveries. The book comprises theoretical and experimental analysis of various properties of nucleic acids, research methods, and some promising applications.
Electrical energy plays an important role in our daily life. It can universally be applied and easily be converted into light, heat or mechanical energy. A general problem, however, is that electrical energy can hardly be stored. Capacitors allow its direct storage, but the quantities are small, compared to the demand of most applications. In general, the storage of electrical energy requires its conversion into another form of energy.
This book is the second in the series of publications in this field by this publisher, and contains a number of latest research developments on ionic liquids (ILs). This promising new area has received a lot of attention during the last 20 years. Readers will find 30 chapters collected in 6 sections on recent applications of ILs in polymer sciences, material chemistry, catalysis, nanotechnology, biotechnology and electrochemical applications.
The term NEMCA refers to nonfaradaic electrochemical modiﬁcation of catalytic activity. The NEMCA effect is also known as electrochemical promotion or electrochemical promotion of catalysis (EPOC) or electropromotion. It is the effect observed on the rates and selectivities of catalytic reactions taking place on electronically conductive catalysts deposited on ionic (or mixed ionic–electronic) supports upon application of electric current or potential (typically 72 V) between the catalyst and a second (counter or auxiliary) electrode also deposited on the same support. ...
According to the definition, electrochemical cells are the devices transferring electrical
energy from chemical reactions into electricity, or helping chemical processes through
the introduction of electrical energy or electrical field. A common example in this
category is battery, which has evolved into a big family and is currently used in all
kinds of applications.
This volume, of a two volume set on ionic liquids, focuses on the applications of ionic liquids in a growing range of areas. Throughout the 1990s, it seemed that most of the attention in the area of ionic liquids applications was directed toward their use as solvents for organic and transition-metal-catalyzed reactions. Certainly, this interest continues on to the present date, but the most innovative uses of ionic liquids span a much more diverse field than just synthesis.
The aim of this book is to provide an overview on the importance of stoichiometry in the materials science field. It presents a collection of selected research articles and reviews providing up-to-date information related to stoichiometry at various levels. Being materials science an interdisciplinary area, the book has been divided in multiple sections, each for a specific field of applications. The first two sections introduce the role of stoichiometry in nanotechnology and defect chemistry, providing examples of state-of-the-art technologies. ...
This book introduces some basic and advanced studies on ionic liquids in the
electrochemical fi eld. Although ionic liquids are known by only a few scientists
and engineers, their applications ’ potential in future technologies is unlimited.
There are already many reports of basic and applied studies of ionic liquids
as reaction solvents, but the reaction solvent is not the only brilliant future of
the ionic liquids. Electrochemistry has become a big fi eld covering several key
ideas such as energy, environment, nanotechnology, and analysis.
In this Eighth Edition we have retained the objectives and approaches for teaching
materials science and engineering that were presented in previous editions. The
first, and primary, objective is to present the basic fundamentals on a level appropriate
for university/college students who have completed their freshmen calculus,
chemistry, and physics courses.
Composites are engineered or naturally occurring materials made from two or more
constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which
remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. Basically, they can be
categorized into two major types, i.e., structural composites with outstanding
mechanical properties and functional composites with various outstanding physical,
chemical or electrochemical properties. They have been widely used in a wide variety
of products, e.g.
are not limited to: the wide range of oxidation and reduction reactions possible,
the possibility of reaching very high levels of product purity and selectivity, and
significantly less energy requirement. The process of electropolymerization leads to
simple and reproducible formations of polymer films, which led to a broad material
diversity of applications.
Nowadays, electrochemistry plays an important role in a wide number of fundamental
research and applied areas.
In recent years, great focus has been placed upon polymer thin films. These polymer
thin films are important in many technological applications, ranging from coatings
and adhesives to organic electronic devices, including sensors and detectors. Polymers
can be prepared using chemical and/or electrochemical methods of polymerization.
There are a few advantages of electrosynthesis over chemical methods.
Electronic Structure The platinum group metals occupy the second and third rows of periodic table Group VIII, the ﬁrst row of which consists of iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni). The second-row elements ruthenium (Ru), rhodium (Rh), and palladium (Pd) all have the krypton (Kr, inert gas, atomic number 36) core of completed electron shells and subshells (see Chemistry, Electrochemistry, and Electrochemical Applications: Oxygen).
Overall structure of electrical power system isin the process of changing. For incremental
growth, it is moving away from fossil fuels - major source of energy in the world today - to
renewable energy resources that are more environmentally friendly and sustainable .
According to American Society for Testing and Materials' corrosion
glossary, corrosion is defined as "the chemical or electrochemical
reaction between a material, usually a metal, and
its environment that produces a deterioration of the material
and its properties".1
Other definitions include Fontana's description that corrosion
is the extractive metallurgy in reverse,2 which is expected
since metals thermodynamically are less stable in their elemental
forms than in their compound forms as ores.
Aluminum is the most abundant metallic element, making up about 8% by weight of the Earth’s crust. It is a silverywhite metal and belongs to group III of the periodic table. Its atomic number is 13 and atomic weight 26.981 54. Pure aluminum is soft and ductile.
The book "Applied Fracture Mechanics" presents a collection of articles on application of fracture mechanics methods to materials science, medicine, and engineering. In thirteen chapters, a wide range of topics is discussed, including strength of biological tissues, safety of nuclear reactor components, fatigue effects in pipelines, environmental effects on fracture among others. In addition, the book presents mathematical and computational methods underlying the fracture mechanics applications, and also developments in statistical modeling of fatigue.
The asynchrony, heterogeneity, and inherent loose coupling that characterize
applications in a wide-area network promote event interaction as a natural
design abstraction for a growing class of software systems. An emerging build-
ing block for such systems is an infrastructure called an event notiﬁcation ser-
vice [Rosenblum and Wolf 1997].
We envision a ubiquitous event notiﬁcation service accessible fromevery site
on a wide-area network and suitable for supporting highly distributed appli-
cations requiring component interactions ranging in granularity from ﬁne to
Nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs) are nanotech-based electroanalytical tools that ﬁnd application in a variety of ﬁelds ranging from electroanalysis to sensors and electronics. The NEEs are fabricated by growing metal nanowires in the pores of a template microporous membrane. The density of the pores in the template determines the number of nanoelectrode elements per surface unit and the average distance between the nanoelectrode elements.
Metal nanoparticles are certain to be the building blocks of the next generation of
electronic, optoelectronic and chemical sensing devices. The physical limits imposed
by top-down methods such as photo- and electron- beam lithography dictate
that the synthesis and assembly of functional nanoscale materials will become
the province of chemists.