According to the definition, electrochemical cells are the devices transferring electrical
energy from chemical reactions into electricity, or helping chemical processes through
the introduction of electrical energy or electrical field. A common example in this
category is battery, which has evolved into a big family and is currently used in all
kinds of applications.
Current Flow in an Electrochemical Cell:
Thermodynamic arguments permit the feasibility of overall cell reactions to be predicted, but give no information on rates. To understand the latter it is necessary to consider the effects on various parts of the cell of forcing the cell voltage to assume a value different from that of the equilibrium potential Eeq (V) or electromotive force (emf). In the example of Figure 1, the cell contains hydrochloric acid as aqueous electrolyte and it divides into two compartments by a semipermeable membrane.
Electrical energy plays an important role in our daily life. It can universally be applied and easily be converted into light, heat or mechanical energy. A general problem, however, is that electrical energy can hardly be stored. Capacitors allow its direct storage, but the quantities are small, compared to the demand of most applications. In general, the storage of electrical energy requires its conversion into another form of energy.
The electrochemical cells are of extreme importance in physical chemistry and in everyday life, and several examples of the two main types of electrochemical cells are in widespread use in all areas of manufacture and energy storage. The electrochemical cell, or galvanic cell, is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy or vice versa when a chemical reaction is occurring.
This book titled "Recent Trend in Electrochemical Science and Technology" contains a selection of chapters focused on advanced methods used in the research area of electrochemical science and technologies; descriptions of electrochemical systems; processing of novel materials and mechanisms relevant for their operation. This book provides an overview on some of the recent development in electrochemical science and technology.
This book introduces some basic and advanced studies on ionic liquids in the
electrochemical fi eld. Although ionic liquids are known by only a few scientists
and engineers, their applications ’ potential in future technologies is unlimited.
There are already many reports of basic and applied studies of ionic liquids
as reaction solvents, but the reaction solvent is not the only brilliant future of
the ionic liquids. Electrochemistry has become a big fi eld covering several key
ideas such as energy, environment, nanotechnology, and analysis.
This minireview looks at the latest trends in the use of nanoparticles (NPs)
in electrochemical biosensing systems. It includes electrochemical characteri-zation of NPs for use as labels in affinity biosensors and other applications.
DNA analysis involving NPs is one of the most important topics of current
research in bionanotechnology.
In recent years, earthquake damage caused by the massive earthquake that happened in many
countries. For example, more than 250,000 people have been killed by the earthquake Haiti
January 2010. In addition, more than 15,000 people have been killed by the Japanese Tohoku
The earthquake and Japan Tohoku coast was devastated by a large tidal wave
oncerns with ionic liquids are one of the most interesting and rapidly developing areas in modern physical chemistry, materials science, technologies, and engineering. Increasing attention has also been paid to the use of ionic liquids in the research fields of biological aspects and natural resources. This book provides the forum for dissemination and exchange of up-to-date scientific information on theoretical, generic, and applied areas of ionic liquids.
Fuel cells (FCs) are electrochemical systems that continuously produce electric energy and heat, where the reactants (fuel and oxidant) are fed to the electrodes and the reaction products are removed from the cell. The chemical energy of the reactants is directly converted into electricity, reaction products, and heat without involving combustion processes. The efﬁciencies of the FCs are about twice those of the heat engines because the latter are affected by the limitations imposed by Carnot’s theorem.
These days, it is impossible to think of an area of knowledge that can keep on
developing without a collaboration in interdisciplinary fields.
Electromotive force is a type of energy per unit of electric charge that is converted
reversibly from chemical, mechanical, or other forms of energy into electrical energy
by a dynamo, battery, electrochemical cells, thermoelectric devices, solar cells,
transformers, and so on.
The theory of electromotive Force is currently one of the most important research
topics within the electrical engineering domain.
Today the most important electrochemical storage systems for stationary applications are the lead-acid and the nickel/cadmium systems. Both of them have advantages and disadvantages which carefully have to be considered for best selection. Batteries for telecom applications are specially designed for long service life and hours of discharging time. Batteries for UPS applications are designed for discharges with high current over short times (minutes). Special battery constructions are offered for the different requirements. ...
Notebook computers are complex devices. Figure 1 depicts the basic elements that comprise a notebook computer and shows how they ﬁt together. It includes the operating environment and user, as well as the computer, battery pack, and the fundamental electrochemical cell that drives its operation. Since notebooks are portable, it is essential to have a lightweight, sealed battery to prevent leakage of electrolyte into the computer case. Two types of batteries are found in a notebook computer. One is a rechargeable battery pack that provides the energy for its operation.
This volume, of a two volume set on ionic liquids, focuses on the applications of ionic liquids in a growing range of areas. Throughout the 1990s, it seemed that most of the attention in the area of ionic liquids applications was directed toward their use as solvents for organic and transition-metal-catalyzed reactions. Certainly, this interest continues on to the present date, but the most innovative uses of ionic liquids span a much more diverse field than just synthesis.
In Chapter 4 of the ﬁrst English edition of the book Portable Batteries by K. Eberts you can read:
Our present knowledge of battery techniques traces back to times of four and a half thousand years ago. We can be sure that the copper vessels that were found from this time could only have been plated with gold by electrochemical means. In 1936 there was an archeological sensation.
Most electrochemical reactions take place at the interface of two or more phases. Hence the area of reaction plays a vital role in determining the efﬁciency of an electrochemical process, just like in any surface reaction. There are several ways to increase the available area for reaction in an electrochemical cell: multiple electrodes are stacked alternatively, bipolar electrodes are used, and, sometimes, the reaction surface is modiﬁed by etching or coating with large surface area particles. ...
DNA chips are gaining increasing importance in different fields ranging from
medicine to analytical chemistry with applications in the latter in food safety
and food quality issues as well as in environmental protection. In the medical
field, DNA chips are frequently used in arrays for gene expression studies (e.g.
In order to ensure their own leadership capability, sustainability, supportability, mobility, or survivability, modern armed forces are becoming increasingly dependent upon having a reliable supply of electrical energy. Consequently, electrochemical power sources are becoming increasingly important as a means to guarantee this reliable power supply. As this concerns quite a broad ﬁeld of applications, the potential solutions using electrochemical power sources are also quite different. This article focuses on one speciﬁc sector, that of portable applications. ...
In India, Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) research started in the then Imperial
Bacteriological Laboratory at Mukteswar as early as in 1929. The work on the production of
vaccines using cell culture technique commenced at Mukteswar in early sixties initially in goat
kidney/calf kidney cell cultures and subsequently by 1971-72 with the availability of the BHK
21 cell line in monolayer cultures. With the increased demand for the FMD vaccines, the
Bangalore campus of IVRI was established in 1972 with the objective of large scale
production in fermenters.
Only one randomized trial, the Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea for Sickle Cell Anemia
(MSH Study), tested the efficacy of hydroxyurea in adults with sickle cell anemia, with six
additional analyses either based on this trial or on followup studies. The significant
hematological effects of hydroxyurea after 2 years (as compared to the placebo arm) included a
small mean increase of 0.6 g/dl in total hemoglobin and a moderate absolute increase in fetal
hemoglobin of 3.2 percent.